Tim's blah blah blah

Homelab Proxmox + VyOS + Debian setup from scratch

(Updated: )

Here I document my home server config. I’m trying to integrate the router in it by using a second USB ethernet as WAN port. Running proxmox I can run a Debian installation for my usual stuff and an OpenWRT router image for routing.

Contents

Goal

I’m looking for a small and energy efficient server with some storage capability.

Todo

  1. Set up warning in case thin volumes exceed usage of thin pool (autoextend? source?)
  2. fstrim guest os volumes after rebooting pve host (source)

Hardware

I’m looking for a small and energy efficient server with some storage capability. I’ve settled for using a NUC with an extra 2.5" bay, which suits my needs.

Target services & architecture

I considered the following virtualization software:

For routing, I considered the following platforms:

In the end I settled for Proxmox + VyOS

Software distribution

I went with Ubuntu Server 20.04-LTS before, but this had frequent updates (feels like daily, also non-security). On top of the Ubuntu’s ideological direction is a bit off course, hence for this setup I’m using Debian Stable instead, which incidentally is the same as the host OS useed by Proxmox.

Installation & configuration

Proxmox

Installation

Install Proxmox as described on their wiki, reserving a small part for the OS and most disk space for VMs:

Post-install fixes, sourced from Proxmox Helper Scripts. Never run scripts from the internet.

# From https://raw.githubusercontent.com/tteck/Proxmox/main/misc/post-pve-install.sh
# Disable Enterprise Repository
sed -i "s/^deb/#deb/g" /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list
# Enable No-Subscription Repository
cat << 'EOF' >>/etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://download.proxmox.com/debian/pve bullseye pve-no-subscription
EOF
# Disable Subscription Nag
echo "DPkg::Post-Invoke { \"dpkg -V proxmox-widget-toolkit | grep -q '/proxmoxlib\.js$'; if [ \$? -eq 1 ]; then { echo 'Removing subscription nag from UI...'; sed -i '/data.status/{s/\!//;s/active/NoMoreNagging/}' /usr/share/javascript/proxmox-widget-toolkit/proxmoxlib.js; }; fi\"; };" >/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/no-nag-script
apt --reinstall install proxmox-widget-toolkit &>/dev/null
# Upgrade proxmox now
apt-get update
apt-get dist-upgrade

Add regular user with sudo power:

adduser tim
usermod -aG sudo tim
mkdir -p ~tim/.ssh/
touch ~tim/.ssh/authorized_keys
chown -R tim:tim ~tim/.ssh
chmod og-rwx ~tim/.ssh/authorized_keys
cat << 'EOF' >>~tim/.ssh/authorized_keys
ssh-rsa AAAAB...
EOF
apt install sudo

Now forbid root login for SSH and forbid password authentication (use public key only):

sed -i "s/^.PermitRootLogin yes/PermitRootLogin no/g" /etc/ssh/sshd_config
grep PermitRootLogin /etc/ssh/sshd_config

sed -i "s/^.PasswordAuthentication yes/PasswordAuthentication no/g" /etc/ssh/sshd_config
grep PasswordAuthentication /etc/ssh/sshd_config

sshd -t
systemctl restart ssh

Optional: add (lower privileged) user to Proxmox VE:

pveum user add tim@pve -firstname "Tim"
pveum passwd tim@pve
pveum acl modify / -user tim@pve -role PVEVMAdmin

Enable colors in shell & vi:

sed -i "s/^# alias /alias /" ~/.bashrc

cat << 'EOF' >>~/.bashrc
alias grep='grep --color=auto'
alias fgrep='fgrep --color=auto'
alias egrep='egrep --color=auto'
EOF

apt install vim

Limit journal filesize to 100M

vim /etc/systemd/journald.conf
# set SystemMaxUse=100M
service systemd-journald restart

Set ondemand cpu governer for power saving. Add intel_pstate=disable to boot parameters (2019):

sed -i 's/^GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet/GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet intel_pstate=disable/' /etc/default/grub
# vi /etc/default/grub
# GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet intel_pstate=disable"
update-grub && reboot

Set scaling governer to ondemand

apt install cpufrequtils
echo ondemand > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu*/cpufreq/scaling_governor
cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu*/cpufreq/scaling_governor

Alternatively try enabling speedstep in BIOS (2018) (not needed for my setup).

Measure power consumption:

Networking

Setup VLAN-aware networking on management interface. Resulting /etc/network/interfaces config:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

iface eno1 inet manual

auto enx7c10c9194780
iface enx7c10c9194780 inet manual

auto vmbr0
iface vmbr0 inet manual
	bridge-ports eno1
	bridge-stp off
	bridge-fd 0
	bridge-vlan-aware yes
	bridge-vids 10-30
#LAN port

auto vmbr1
iface vmbr1 inet manual
	bridge-ports enx000ec6955446
	#bridge_maxwait 40	
	bridge-stp off
	bridge-fd 0
#WAN

auto vmbr0.10
iface vmbr0.10 inet static
	address 172.17.10.4/24
	gateway 172.17.10.1
#Mgmt interface

Storage

Expand Proxmox LVM over two disks. Sources:

lsblk
# Create full-disk LVM partition
cfdisk /dev/sda
# Wipe disk of previous LVM config
pvremove -y -ff /dev/sda*

# Create new PV
pvcreate /dev/disk/by-id/ata-Samsung_SSD_860_EVO_4TB_S45JNB0M500432F-part1
vgextend pve /dev/disk/by-id/ata-Samsung_SSD_860_EVO_4TB_S45JNB0M500432F-part1

# Remove 'local-lvm' storage via GUI or pvesm
pvesm remove local-lvm

# Remove data LVM pool, recreate new one (could also extend probably)
lvremove pve/data

# Optional, to extend logical volume over full volume group
# lvextend --poolmetadatasize +30G pve/data` # too big
# lvextend -l +100%FREE pve/data

Set up storage via LVM thin pools / thin volumes

Final setup looks something like:

tim@pve:~$ sudo lvs -a
  LV                    VG  Attr       LSize   Pool          Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert
  lv_backup_mba         pve Vwi-aotz-- 256.00g thinpool_data        2.96                                   
  lv_backup_mbp         pve Vwi-aotz--   1.00t thinpool_data        1.86                                   
  lv_backup_tex         pve Vwi-aotz--   1.25t thinpool_data        1.84                                   
  lv_backup_vms         pve Vwi-aotz-- 256.00g thinpool_data        3.32                                   
  lv_bulk               pve Vwi-aotz--   3.00t thinpool_data        1.79                                   
  [lvol0_pmspare]       pve ewi------- 128.00m                                                             
  root                  pve -wi-ao----   8.00g                                                             
  swap                  pve -wi-ao----   4.00g                                                             
  thinpool_data         pve twi-aotz--  <4.95t                      2.25   11.18                           
  [thinpool_data_tdata] pve Twi-ao----  <4.95t                                                             
  [thinpool_data_tmeta] pve ewi-ao----  80.00m                                                             
  thinpool_vms          pve twi-aotz-- 512.00g                      7.17   12.75                           
  [thinpool_vms_tdata]  pve Twi-ao---- 512.00g                                                             
  [thinpool_vms_tmeta]  pve ewi-ao---- 128.00m                                                             
  vm-100-disk-0         pve Vwi-aotz--   8.00g thinpool_vms         61.17                                  
  vm-200-disk-0         pve Vwi-a-tz-- 300.00g thinpool_vms         4.66                                   
  vm-201-disk-0         pve Vwi-aotz-- 300.00g thinpool_vms         5.30                                   
  vm-202-disk-0         pve Vwi-a-tz--   8.00g thinpool_vms         24.24                                  

Optional tweaks & bugfixes

Optional: assign USB dongle interface a nice name. N.B. this breaks proxmox recognizing the adapter as network interface in the GUI, disabling some configuration options.

echo 'SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="7c:10:c9:19:47:80", NAME="usb0"' | tee -a /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules

echo "auto usb0
iface usb0 inet dhcp" | tee -a /etc/network/interfaces

udevadm control --reload-rules && udevadm trigger

Optional: Fix boot delay after bluetooth driver error. Looks like it’s caused by DHCP timeout on unconnected ethernet port, leave as is. Add intel-ibt-17* bluetooth driver for NUC –> does not work, conflicts with proxmox kernel. Wait until adopted in main PVE kernel.

Bugfix: bridge brought up before physical port not up: “error: vmbr1: bridge port enx000ec6955446 does not exist”

  1. Increase bridge_maxwait to 40s
  2. Alternative: Increase bridge_waitport ?
  3. Try something else

VyOS

Installation as KVM

Get image, install and add serial socket for using xterm.js support (copy-pasting). Also start on boot.

ls /var/lib/vz/template/iso/
qm create 101 --name vyos --memory 2048 --net0 virtio,bridge=vmbr0 --net1 virtio,bridge=vmbr1 --ide2 media=cdrom,file=local:iso/vyos-rolling-latest.iso --virtio0 thinpool_vms:8
qm set 101 --net1 virtio,bridge=vmbr1
qm set 101 -serial0 socket
qm set 101 --onboot 1

Open terminal via Spice/xterm.js, install image, remove image, and reboot

qm start 101
# log in to guest, run `install image` and follow instructions
qm set 101 --ide2 none
qm reboot 101

Enable QEMU guest agent in Proxmox (VyOS has this since 2018). Source

qm set 101 --agent 1
qm agent 101 ping

Update VyOS version

You can update the VyOS version by downloading a new image and installing it:

add system image https://s3-us.vyos.io/rolling/current/vyos-rolling-latest.iso
reboot

Unfortunately the rolling releases aren’t signed, only LTS are.

Configure VyOS

Set global settings

set set system host-name vyos
set system domain-name lan.vanwerkhoven.org

Configure eth1 (=vmbr1=WAN) as DHCP client

#TODO replace with dhcp query @ right VLAN id later
set interfaces ethernet eth1 vif 300
set interfaces ethernet eth1 vif 300 description "T-mobile WAN"
set interfaces ethernet eth1 vif 300 address dhcp

Set up neworking

Setup VLAN on LAN network, see here

set interfaces ethernet eth0 description LAN

set interfaces bridge br100 enable-vlan
# set interfaces bridge br100 member interface eth0 allowed-vlan 2-4092
set interfaces bridge br100 member interface eth0 allowed-vlan 10
set interfaces bridge br100 member interface eth0 allowed-vlan 20
set interfaces bridge br100 member interface eth0 allowed-vlan 30
set interfaces bridge br100 member interface eth0 allowed-vlan 40
set interfaces bridge br100 vif 10 address 172.17.10.1/24
set interfaces bridge br100 vif 10 description 'VLAN1-Infra'
set interfaces bridge br100 vif 20 address 172.17.20.1/24
set interfaces bridge br100 vif 20 description 'VLAN20-Trusted'
set interfaces bridge br100 vif 30 address 172.17.30.1/24
set interfaces bridge br100 vif 30 description 'VLAN30-Guest'
set interfaces bridge br100 vif 40 address 172.17.40.1/24
set interfaces bridge br100 vif 40 description 'VLAN40-IoT'
set interfaces bridge br100 stp

Enable SSH on only management interface without password auth.

set service ssh port '22'
set service ssh listen-address 172.17.10.1
set service ssh disable-password-authentication
set system login user vyos authentication public-keys tim@neptune type ssh-rsa
set system login user vyos authentication public-keys tim@neptune key AAAA...

Harden SSH, only allow strong ciphers, don’t use md5/sha1, don’t use contested nistp256:

set service ssh ciphers aes128-cbc
set service ssh ciphers aes128-ctr           
set service ssh ciphers aes128-gcm@openssh.com
set service ssh ciphers aes192-cbc           
set service ssh ciphers aes192-ctr           
set service ssh ciphers aes256-cbc           
set service ssh ciphers aes256-ctr           
set service ssh ciphers aes256-gcm@openssh.com
set service ssh ciphers chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com
set service ssh mac hmac-sha2-256        
set service ssh mac hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com
set service ssh mac hmac-sha2-512        
set service ssh mac hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com
set service ssh key-exchange curve25519-sha256    
set service ssh key-exchange curve25519-sha256@libssh.org
set service ssh key-exchange diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256
set service ssh key-exchange diffie-hellman-group14-sha256
set service ssh key-exchange diffie-hellman-group16-sha512
set service ssh key-exchange diffie-hellman-group18-sha512

Set timezone & ntp server from global pool:

set system time-zone Europe/Amsterdam
delete system ntp
set system ntp server 0.nl.pool.ntp.org
set system ntp server 1.nl.pool.ntp.org

Enable DNS from DHCP, also for local machine. Set cache to 100k, 10x up from dnsmasq default. More local caching should give more speed and more privay (less public querying).

# TODO: fix when going live to WAN interface
# Specifically use name servers received for the interface that is using DHCP client to get an IP
set service dns forwarding dhcp eth1.300
set service dns forwarding allow-from 172.17.0.0/16
set service dns forwarding domain lan.vanwerkhoven.org server 172.17.10.1
set service dns forwarding listen-address 172.17.10.1
set service dns forwarding listen-address 172.17.20.1
set service dns forwarding listen-address 172.17.30.1
set service dns forwarding listen-address 172.17.40.1
set service dns forwarding listen-address 172.17.50.1
set service dns forwarding cache-size 100000
# set system name-server 172.17.10.1 # use static
# set system name-servers eth1.1 # use from dhcp -- not working?

Configure DHCP server ranges for VLAN. 100-254 is dynamic, 1-100 is for static hosts.

delete service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 range vlan10range start 172.17.10.100
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 range vlan10range stop 172.17.10.254
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 default-router 172.17.10.1
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 domain-name lan.vanwerkhoven.org
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 name-server 172.17.10.1

delete service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 authoritative
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 range vlan20range start 172.17.20.100
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 range vlan20range stop 172.17.20.254
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 default-router 172.17.20.1
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 domain-name lan.vanwerkhoven.org
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 name-server 172.17.20.1

delete service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan30
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan30 subnet 172.17.30.0/24 range vlan30range start 172.17.30.100
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan30 subnet 172.17.30.0/24 range vlan30range stop 172.17.30.254
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan30 subnet 172.17.30.0/24 default-router 172.17.30.1
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan30 subnet 172.17.30.0/24 domain-name lan.vanwerkhoven.org
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan30 subnet 172.17.30.0/24 name-server 172.17.30.1

delete service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 range vlan40range start 172.17.40.100
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 range vlan40range stop 172.17.40.254
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 default-router 172.17.40.1
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 domain-name lan.vanwerkhoven.org
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 name-server 172.17.40.1

Set up masquerading for outbound traffic. Ensure high rule number so it’s processed after firewalling.

#TODO: fix WAN VLAN
set nat source rule 5010 outbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat source rule 5010 source address '172.17.0.0/16'
set nat source rule 5010 translation address masquerade
set nat source rule 5010 protocol all
set nat source rule 5010 description 'Masquerade for WAN'

Set up static ips/host names. Still not possible to set the hostname of the router itself.

set system static-host-mapping host-name vyos.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.1 # not sure if this works, already set to 127.0.0.1
set system static-host-mapping host-name pve.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.4
set system static-host-mapping host-name proteus.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.2
set system static-host-mapping host-name nextcloud.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.2
set system static-host-mapping host-name unifi.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.5


# Split DNS for specific hosts (mostly https & ssh) N.B. Ensure you restart DNS or set dns cache-size to 0 to ensure the cache is cleared!
set system static-host-mapping host-name ssh.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.2
set system static-host-mapping host-name home.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.2
set system static-host-mapping host-name www.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.2
set system static-host-mapping host-name nextcloud.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.2
set system static-host-mapping host-name photos.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.2
set system static-host-mapping host-name grafana.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.2
set system static-host-mapping host-name homeassistant.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.2

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 static-mapping gs108e ip-address 172.17.10.3
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 static-mapping gs108e mac-address 78:D2:94:2F:81:F8
set system static-host-mapping host-name gs108e.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.3

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 static-mapping uap-lr1-floor1 ip-address 172.17.10.10
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 static-mapping uap-lr1-floor1 mac-address 18:E8:29:93:E1:66
set system static-host-mapping host-name uap-lr1-floor1.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.10

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 static-mapping uap-lr2-floor2 ip-address 172.17.10.11
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 static-mapping uap-lr2-floor2 mac-address 18:E8:29:E6:00:2E
set system static-host-mapping host-name uap-lr2-floor2.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.11

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 static-mapping uap-lr3-floor3 ip-address 172.17.10.12
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan10 subnet 172.17.10.0/24 static-mapping uap-lr3-floor3 mac-address E0:63:DA:79:A7:93
set system static-host-mapping host-name uap-lr3-floor3.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.10.12

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 static-mapping philips-hue ip-address 172.17.20.21
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 static-mapping philips-hue mac-address 00:17:88:79:93:47
set system static-host-mapping host-name philips-hue.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.20.21

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 static-mapping appletv-living ip-address 172.17.20.20
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 static-mapping appletv-living mac-address D0:03:4B:26:85:0C
set system static-host-mapping host-name appletv-living.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.20.20

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 static-mapping esp-mobile ip-address 172.17.20.30
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan20 subnet 172.17.20.0/24 static-mapping esp-mobile mac-address 84:0d:8e:8f:52:f5
set system static-host-mapping host-name esp-mobile.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.20.30

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp8266-iapetus ip-address 172.17.40.30
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp8266-iapetus mac-address 84:0d:8e:8f:4e:11
set system static-host-mapping host-name esp8266-iapetus.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.40.30

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-kidsroom ip-address 172.17.40.31
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-kidsroom mac-address 2c:f4:32:4a:a3:3e
set system static-host-mapping host-name esp-kidsroom.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.40.31

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-bedroom ip-address 172.17.40.32
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-bedroom mac-address 84:f3:eb:0d:c1:b8
set system static-host-mapping host-name esp-bedroom.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.40.32

# delete service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-living
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-enceladus ip-address 172.17.40.33
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-enceladus mac-address 84:0d:8e:8f:55:6c
# delete system static-host-mapping host-name esp-living.lan.vanwerkhoven.org
set system static-host-mapping host-name esp-enceladus.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.40.33

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping nrg-itho-28ac ip-address 172.17.40.34
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping nrg-itho-28ac mac-address e0:5a:1b:6e:28:ac
set system static-host-mapping host-name nrg-itho-28ac.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.40.34

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping solaredge-se3680h ip-address 172.17.40.35
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping solaredge-se3680h mac-address 84:d6:c5:41:62:f4
set system static-host-mapping host-name solaredge-se3680h.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.40.35

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-lilygo-nibe ip-address 172.17.40.36
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-lilygo-nibe mac-address B0:B2:1C:50:76:F0
set system static-host-mapping host-name esp-lilygo-nibe.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.40.36

set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-tethys ip-address 172.17.40.37
set service dhcp-server shared-network-name vlan40 subnet 172.17.40.0/24 static-mapping esp-tethys mac-address 84:0D:8E:8F:50:65
set system static-host-mapping host-name esp-tethys.lan.vanwerkhoven.org inet 172.17.40.37

sensor:

Optional: disable VLAN on WAN

# set firewall zone WAN interface 'eth1.300'
set firewall zone WAN interface 'eth1'

# set interfaces ethernet eth1 vif 300 address 'dhcp'
# set interfaces ethernet eth1 vif 300 description 'T-Mobile WAN'

set interfaces ethernet eth1 address 'dhcp'
set interfaces ethernet eth1 description 'T-Mobile 4G LTE WAN'

# set nat destination rule 100 inbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat destination rule 100 inbound-interface 'eth1'

# set nat destination rule 102 inbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat destination rule 102 inbound-interface 'eth1'

# set nat destination rule 104 inbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat destination rule 104 inbound-interface 'eth1'

# set nat destination rule 106 inbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat destination rule 106 inbound-interface 'eth1'

# set nat source rule 5001 outbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat source rule 5001 outbound-interface 'eth1'

# set nat source rule 5010 outbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat source rule 5010 outbound-interface 'eth1'

# set qos interface eth1.300 egress 'WAN_QUEUE'
set qos interface eth1 egress 'WAN_QUEUE'

# set service dns forwarding dhcp 'eth1.300'
set service dns forwarding dhcp 'eth1'

Set up port forwaring

  1. 10022 to 172.17.10.4:22
  2. 443 to 172.17.10.2:443
  3. 80 to 172.17.10.2:80
  4. 8883 to 172.17.10.2:1883
set nat destination rule 100 description 'Port Forward: SSH to 172.17.10.2'
set nat destination rule 100 destination port '22'
set nat destination rule 100 inbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat destination rule 100 protocol 'tcp'
set nat destination rule 100 translation address '172.17.10.2'

set nat destination rule 102 description 'Port Forward: HTTP to 172.17.10.2'
set nat destination rule 102 destination port '80'
set nat destination rule 102 inbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat destination rule 102 protocol 'tcp'
set nat destination rule 102 translation address '172.17.10.2'

set nat destination rule 104 description 'Port Forward: HTTPS to 172.17.10.2'
set nat destination rule 104 destination port '443'
set nat destination rule 104 inbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat destination rule 104 protocol 'tcp'
set nat destination rule 104 translation address '172.17.10.2'

set nat destination rule 106 description 'Port Forward: MQTT to 172.17.10.2'
set nat destination rule 106 destination port '8883'
set nat destination rule 106 inbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat destination rule 106 protocol 'tcp'
set nat destination rule 106 translation address '172.17.10.2'
set nat destination rule 106 translation port '1883'

Hairpin NAT is not implemented well for dynamics IPs (see here and here), so we use split DNS for local resolving instead.

For reference, a hairpin NAT setup looks like:

set nat destination rule 100 description 'Port Forward SSH'
set nat destination rule 100 destination port '22'
set nat destination rule 100 inbound-interface '<WAN interface>' # WAN interface
set nat destination rule 100 protocol 'tcp'
set nat destination rule 100 translation address '<LAN IP>' # LAN IP

set nat destination rule 101 description 'Port Forward: SSH (NAT Reflection: INSIDE)'
set nat destination rule 101 destination port '22'
set nat destination rule 101 destination address '<WAN IP>' # WAN IP --> required but not in official docs
set nat destination rule 101 inbound-interface '<LAN interface>' # LAN interface
set nat destination rule 101 protocol 'tcp'
set nat destination rule 101 translation address '<LAN IP>' # LAN IP

set nat source rule 100 description 'Port Forward: all to <LAN RANGE>/24 (NAT Reflection: INSIDE)'
set nat source rule 100 destination address '<LAN RANGE>/24'
set nat source rule 100 source address '<LAN RANGE>/24'
set nat source rule 100 outbound-interface '<LAN interface>' # LAN interface
set nat source rule 100 protocol 'tcp'
set nat source rule 100 translation address 'masquerade'

Set up port firewall

Set up zone-based firewall using the following zones:

Rules:

to Local to Infra to Trusted to Guest to IoT to WAN
Local FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT
Infra FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT
Trust. FW_2LOCAL FW_TRUST2INFRA FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT
Guest FW_2LOCAL FW_GUEST2INFRA FW_GUEST2TRUST FW_DROP FW_ACCEPT
IoT FW_2LOCAL FW_IOT2INFRA FW_DROP FW_DROP FW_IOT2WAN
WAN FW_WAN2LOCAL FW_WAN2INFRA FW_WAN2ALL FW_WAN2ALL FW_WAN2ALL

FW_ACCEPT

set firewall name FW_ACCEPT default-action accept
set firewall name FW_ACCEPT enable-default-log # temp

set firewall name FW_ACCEPT rule 200 action drop
set firewall name FW_ACCEPT rule 200 description 'drop invalid'
set firewall name FW_ACCEPT rule 200 state invalid enable
set firewall name FW_ACCEPT rule 200 log enable # temp

FW_DROP

set firewall name FW_DROP default-action drop

FW_WAN2ALL

set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL default-action drop

set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL rule 200 action accept
set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL rule 200 description 'accept established/related'
set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL rule 200 state established enable
set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL rule 200 state related enable

set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL rule 210 action accept
set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL rule 210 description 'wireguard maybe also needed'
set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL rule 210 destination port 51820
set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL rule 210 protocol udp
set firewall name FW_WAN2ALL rule 210 state new enable

FW_WAN2LOCAL

set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL default-action drop
# Wireguard debugging
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL enable-default-log
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL log enable

set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 200 action accept
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 200 description 'accept established/related'
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 200 state established enable
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 200 state related enable
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 200 log enable

set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 210 action accept
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 210 description 'wireguard'
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 210 destination port 51820
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 210 protocol udp
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 210 state new enable
set firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL rule 210 log enable

FW_WAN2INFRA

set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA default-action drop

set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 200 action accept
set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 200 description 'accept established/related'
set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 200 state established enable
set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 200 state related enable

set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 210 action accept
set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 210 description 'accept port forwards'
set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 210 log enablet
set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 210 protocol tcp
set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 210 destination port 22,80,443,1883
set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 210 destination address 172.17.10.4
set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 210 state new 'enable'

# set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 220 action accept
# set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 220 description 'wireguard - just testing now'
# set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 220 destination port 51820
# set firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA rule 220 protocol udp

FW_2LOCAL

set firewall name FW_2LOCAL default-action drop

set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 200 action accept
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 200 description 'accept established/related'
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 200 log disable
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 200 state established enable
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 200 state related enable

set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 210 action accept
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 210 description 'accept dhcp'
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 210 log disable
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 210 protocol udp
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 210 destination port 67-68

set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 220 action accept
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 220 description 'accept dns'
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 220 log disable
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 220 protocol udp
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 220 destination port 53

set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 230 action accept
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 230 description 'accept ssh'
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 230 log disable
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 230 protocol tcp
set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 230 destination port 22

# delete firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 240
# set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 240 action accept
# set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 240 description 'accept wireguard (not sure if needed - seems not)'
# set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 240 log disable
# set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 240 protocol udp
# set firewall name FW_2LOCAL rule 240 destination port 51820

FW_TRUST2INFRA

set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA default-action drop

set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 200 action accept
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 200 description 'accept established/related'
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 200 log disable
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 200 state established enable
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 200 state related enable

set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 210 action accept
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 210 description 'accept mqtt(s)/http(s)/HA/ssh/grafana/jellyfin&emby/plex/iperf/transmission to proteus'
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 210 destination address 172.17.10.2
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 210 protocol tcp
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 210 destination port 8883,1883,80,443,8123,22,3000,8096,32400,32469,7575,9001

set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 211 action accept
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 211 description 'accept plex network discovery to proteus -- not working yet '
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 211 destination address 172.17.10.2
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 211 protocol udp
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 211 destination port 1900,5353,32410,32412,32413,32414

set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 220 action accept
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 220 description 'accept ssh to pve'
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 220 destination address 172.17.10.4
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 220 protocol tcp
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 220 destination port 22

set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 230 action accept
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 230 description 'accept ssh/web to unifi controller'
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 230 destination address 172.17.10.5
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 230 protocol tcp
set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 230 destination port 22,443,8443

FW_GUEST2INFRA

set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA default-action drop

set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 200 action accept
set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 200 description 'accept established/related'
set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 200 log disable
set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 200 state established enable
set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 200 state related enable

set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 210 action accept
set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 210 description 'accept http(s)/ssh to proteus'
set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 210 destination address 172.17.10.2
set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 210 protocol tcp
set firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA rule 210 destination port 22,80,443

FW_IOT2INFRA

set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA default-action drop

set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 200 action accept
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 200 description 'accept established/related'
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 200 log disable
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 200 state established enable
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 200 state related enable

set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 210 action accept
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 210 description 'accept mqtt(s)/HA API to proteus'
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 210 destination address 172.17.10.2
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 210 protocol tcp
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 210 destination port 8883,1883,6053

set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 220 action accept
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 220 description 'accept NibeGW UDP traffic to proteus'
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 220 destination address 172.17.10.2
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 220 protocol udp
set firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA rule 220 destination port 9999,10000

FW_IOT2WAN

set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN default-action drop

set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN rule 200 action accept
set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN rule 200 description 'accept established/related'
set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN rule 200 log disable
set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN rule 200 state established enable
set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN rule 200 state related enable

set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN rule 210 action accept
set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN rule 210 description 'accept solaredge to phone home'
set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN rule 210 source address 172.17.40.35
set firewall name FW_IOT2WAN rule 210 protocol tcp

FW_GUEST2TRUST

set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST default-action drop

set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST rule 200 action accept
set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST rule 200 description 'accept established/related'
set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST rule 200 log disable
set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST rule 200 state established enable
set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST rule 200 state related enable

set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST rule 210 action accept
set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST rule 210 description 'accept access to AppleTV'
set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST rule 210 destination address 172.17.20.20
set firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST rule 210 protocol tcp_udp

Apply firewall zones to interfaces

to Local to Infra to Trusted to Guest to IoT to WAN
Local FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT
Infra FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT
Trust. FW_2LOCAL FW_TRUST2INFRA FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT FW_ACCEPT
Guest FW_2LOCAL FW_DROP FW_GUEST2TRUST FW_DROP FW_ACCEPT
IoT FW_2LOCAL FW_IOT2INFRA FW_IOT2INFRA FW_DROP FW_IOT2WAN
WAN FW_WAN2LOCAL FW_WAN2INFRA FW_WAN2ALL FW_WAN2ALL FW_WAN2ALL

@TODO fix VLAN before live

# Temp disable firewall
delete firewall zone LOCAL
delete firewall zone INFRA
delete firewall zone TRUSTED
delete firewall zone GUEST
delete firewall zone IOT
delete firewall zone WAN

set firewall zone LOCAL local-zone
set firewall zone LOCAL default-action drop
set firewall zone LOCAL from INFRA firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone LOCAL from TRUSTED firewall name FW_2LOCAL
set firewall zone LOCAL from GUEST firewall name FW_2LOCAL
set firewall zone LOCAL from IOT firewall name FW_2LOCAL
set firewall zone LOCAL from WAN firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL

set firewall zone INFRA interface br100.10
set firewall zone INFRA default-action drop
set firewall zone INFRA from LOCAL firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone INFRA from TRUSTED firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA
set firewall zone INFRA from GUEST firewall name FW_GUEST2INFRA
set firewall zone INFRA from IOT firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA
set firewall zone INFRA from WAN firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA

set firewall zone TRUSTED interface br100.20
set firewall zone TRUSTED interface wg0
set firewall zone TRUSTED default-action drop
set firewall zone TRUSTED from LOCAL firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone TRUSTED from INFRA firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone TRUSTED from GUEST firewall name FW_GUEST2TRUST
set firewall zone TRUSTED from IOT firewall name FW_IOT2INFRA
set firewall zone TRUSTED from WAN firewall name FW_WAN2ALL

set firewall zone GUEST interface br100.30
set firewall zone GUEST default-action drop
set firewall zone GUEST from LOCAL firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone GUEST from INFRA firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone GUEST from TRUSTED firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone GUEST from IOT firewall name FW_DROP
set firewall zone GUEST from WAN firewall name FW_WAN2ALL

set firewall zone IOT interface br100.40
set firewall zone IOT default-action drop
set firewall zone IOT from LOCAL firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone IOT from INFRA firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone IOT from TRUSTED firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone IOT from GUEST firewall name FW_DROP
set firewall zone IOT from WAN firewall name FW_WAN2ALL

set firewall zone WAN interface eth1.300
set firewall zone WAN default-action drop
set firewall zone WAN from LOCAL firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone WAN from INFRA firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone WAN from TRUSTED firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone WAN from GUEST firewall name FW_ACCEPT
set firewall zone WAN from IOT firewall name FW_IOT2WAN

Restart firewall - is done automatically. If you don’t notice the changes you probably made a mistake :p

Allow mDNS reflector, allow guests to reach AppleTV (.30 to .20) & Plex to reach AppleTV (.10 to .20). Also set igmp-proxy for Plex media server (maybe - see https://www.reddit.com/r/Ubiquiti/comments/6rdqx8/plex_server_across_multiple_subnets/)

set service mdns repeater interface br100.10
set service mdns repeater interface br100.20
set service mdns repeater interface br100.30

# Not working yet
# set protocols igmp-proxy interface br100.10 role upstream
# set protocols igmp-proxy interface br100.10 alt-subnet 172.17.0.0/16
# set protocols igmp-proxy interface br100.20 role downstream
# set protocols igmp-proxy interface br100.30 role downstream

# Not working yet
set service broadcast-relay id 1 description 'Plex GDM'
set service broadcast-relay id 1 interface 'br100.10'
set service broadcast-relay id 1 interface 'br100.20'
set service broadcast-relay id 1 port '32410'
set service broadcast-relay id 2 description 'Plex GDM'
set service broadcast-relay id 2 interface 'br100.10'
set service broadcast-relay id 2 interface 'br100.20'
set service broadcast-relay id 2 port '32412'
set service broadcast-relay id 3 description 'Plex GDM'
set service broadcast-relay id 3 interface 'br100.10'
set service broadcast-relay id 3 interface 'br100.20'
set service broadcast-relay id 3 port '32413'
set service broadcast-relay id 4 description 'Plex GDM'
set service broadcast-relay id 4 interface 'br100.10'
set service broadcast-relay id 4 interface 'br100.20'
set service broadcast-relay id 4 port '32414'
set service broadcast-relay id 5 description 'Plex GDM'
set service broadcast-relay id 5 interface 'br100.10'
set service broadcast-relay id 5 interface 'br100.20'
set service broadcast-relay id 5 port '32400'

Set up port QoS & MSS

Set up QoS. Partially inspired by this very outdated (2015) source.

set qos policy shaper WAN_QUEUE bandwidth '100mbit'
set qos policy shaper WAN_QUEUE default bandwidth '95%'
set qos policy shaper WAN_QUEUE default queue-type fq-codel

set qos policy shaper WAN_QUEUE class 10 queue-type fq-codel
set qos policy shaper WAN_QUEUE class 10 bandwidth '10%'
set qos policy shaper WAN_QUEUE class 10 priority '1'
set qos policy shaper WAN_QUEUE class 10 match icmp ip protocol icmp
set qos policy shaper WAN_QUEUE class 10 match dns ip source port 53

# TODO: fix WAN VLAN when deploying
set qos interface eth1.1 egress WAN_QUEUE
delete qos interface eth1.1 ingress WAN_QUEUE

Set MSS-clamping to ensure optimal link utilization. Diagnose max MTU using ping, then set MSS value = MTU - 20 (IP header) - 20 (TCP header):

set firewall options interface adjust-mss 1460

Configure Ad-blocking

Set up DNS-based ad blocking on VyOS.

Configure VPN

Set up Wireguard VPN, see the official VyOS docs and this example. We use 172.17.50.0/24 to differentiate from LAN subnets, but keep it on the Trusted VLAN (20).

set firewall name WAN-LOCAL rule 200 state new enable

config
run generate pki wireguard key-pair install interface wg0
# Public key: uGc4JMJ4IJc0aoIY/ITOrFGWjmn+RxnqRQMecOS4uB8=

set interfaces wireguard wg0 address 172.17.10.1/24
set interfaces wireguard wg0 address 172.17.50.1/24
set interfaces wireguard wg0 description "Roadwarrior Wireguard"
set interfaces wireguard wg0 port 51820

# Add first peer with local IP '172.17.50.100/32'
# run generate pki wireguard key-pair
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer tim public-key 'ZtYsIGNwdEqxB3YY9iUFCnQAOK1IkAsmBhuaZ5cekGI='
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer tim persistent-keepalive 15
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer tim allowed-ips 172.17.50.100/32

# run generate pki wireguard preshared-key install interface wg0 peer tim
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer tim preshared-key 'PSK'

# Second peer
# run generate pki wireguard key-pair
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer helene public-key 'XjjkRchCR4qY7i12sJVK/Jl6cycgCovY64305PMw3n8='
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer helene persistent-keepalive 15
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer helene allowed-ips 172.17.50.101/32

# run generate pki wireguard preshared-key install interface wg0 peer helene
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer helene preshared-key 'PSK'

# Third peer
# run generate pki wireguard key-pair
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer macbook public-key 'lEKOXMTHRVRURB5aOBioFiZlZS582YYZknqqp/wXt2s='
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer macbook persistent-keepalive 15
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer macbook allowed-ips 172.17.50.102/32

# run generate pki wireguard preshared-key install interface wg0 peer macbook
set interfaces wireguard wg0 peer macbook preshared-key 'PSK'

# Optionally set routing -- only needed for site-to-site LAN setups I think
# set protocols static route 172.17.50.0/24 interface wg0
commit; save; exit

Update firewall to not NAT roadwarrior traffic

set service dns forwarding listen-address 172.17.50.1

set nat source rule 5001 outbound-interface 'eth1.300'
set nat source rule 5001 destination address 172.17.50.0/24
set nat source rule 5001 exclude
set nat source rule 5001 protocol all
set nat source rule 5001 translation address masquerade
set nat source rule 5001 description 'Exclude roadwarrior VPN'

Now generate client configs and install these on your clients. Be sure to manually copy over the client public key to the server!

generate wireguard client-config tim interface wg0 server home.vanwerkhoven.org address 172.17.50.100/24
generate wireguard client-config helene interface wg0 server home.vanwerkhoven.org address 172.17.50.101/24
generate wireguard client-config macbook interface wg0 server home.vanwerkhoven.org address 172.17.50.102/24

Debug VyOS Wireguard

Enable debug log for Wireguard:

echo module wireguard +p > /sys/kernel/debug/dynamic_debug/control

Check firewall

sudo nft list tables
sudo nft list table vyos_nat
show log firewall name FW_WAN2INFRA
show firewall name FW_WAN2LOCAL

Test static routing

set protocols static route 172.17.50.0/24 interface wg0

Monitor

monitor traffic interface wg0

Configure GS108EP switch

I use a GS108EP switch to connect my Access Points over PoE. To ensure these get the right VLAN, we need to configure it as well. Unforatuntely the GS108E does not support changing the management VLAN from 1, so we have to use a workaround.

As reminder:

  1. The PVID defines the VLAN where untagged frames TO the switch are sent to (ingress). This is typically the same with the one-and-only Untagged VLAN you have on a 802.1q VLAN port
  2. The port memebership determines how VLAN tags are applied to traffic going from the switch (egress).

Since we use our management interface in an untagged fashion, we can use 10 for the VyOS config and the rest of the network, and use 1 for the netgear switch.

Debian

Proxmox supports two guest architectures:

I finally went for LXC because of disk speed:

fio --name=random-write --ioengine=posixaio --rw=randwrite --bs=4k --numjobs=1 --size=2g --iodepth=1 --runtime=30 --time_based --end_fsync=1

pve host:
  WRITE: bw=220MiB/s (231MB/s), 220MiB/s-220MiB/s (231MB/s-231MB/s), io=6690MiB (7015MB), run=30431-30431msec

debian VM guest @ virtio:
  WRITE: bw=67.5MiB/s (70.7MB/s), 67.5MiB/s-67.5MiB/s (70.7MB/s-70.7MB/s), io=2048MiB (2147MB), run=30363-30363msec

debian VM guest @ scsi:
  WRITE: bw=31.1MiB/s (32.6MB/s), 31.1MiB/s-31.1MiB/s (32.6MB/s-32.6MB/s), io=1493MiB (1566MB), run=48003-48003msec

debian LXC guest @ virtio
  WRITE: bw=192MiB/s (202MB/s), 192MiB/s-192MiB/s (202MB/s-202MB/s), io=5876MiB (6161MB), run=30533-30533msec

old proteus:
  WRITE: bw=172MiB/s (180MB/s), 172MiB/s-172MiB/s (180MB/s-180MB/s), io=5338MiB (5598MB), run=31078-31078msec

fio --name=random-write --ioengine=posixaio --rw=randwrite --bs=64k --size=128m --numjobs=16 --iodepth=16 --runtime=30 --time_based --end_fsync=1
pve host:
  WRITE: bw=2429MiB/s (2547MB/s), 140MiB/s-164MiB/s (147MB/s-172MB/s), io=72.7GiB (78.0GB), run=30127-30641msec

debian VM guest @ virtio:
  WRITE: bw=1856MiB/s (1946MB/s), 108MiB/s-123MiB/s (114MB/s-129MB/s), io=55.7GiB (59.8GB), run=30133-30712msec

debian LXC guest @ virtio
  WRITE: bw=2045MiB/s (2145MB/s), 117MiB/s-141MiB/s (123MB/s-148MB/s), io=61.9GiB (66.4GB), run=30585-30979msec

old proteus:
  WRITE: bw=286MiB/s (300MB/s), 15.8MiB/s-20.8MiB/s (16.6MB/s-21.8MB/s), io=9648MiB (10.1GB), run=30656-33702msec

Install & configure Debian server as LXC (selected)

Get images using Proxmox’ Proxmox VE Appliance Manager:

pveam update
pveam available
pveam download local debian-11-standard_11.6-1_amd64.tar.zst
pveam list local

Check storage to use

pvesm status

Create and configure LXC container based on downloaded image. Ensure it’s an unprivileged container to protect our host and router running on it.

pct create 301 local:vztmpl/debian-11-standard_11.6-1_amd64.tar.zst --description "Debian LXC server test" --hostname proteus2 --rootfs thinpool_vms:100 --unprivileged 1 --cores 4 --memory 2048 --ssh-public-keys /root/.ssh/tim.id_rsa.pub --net0 name=eth0,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=0,gw=172.17.10.1,ip=172.17.10.20/24,tag=10

Now configure networking, on Proxmox’ vmbr0 with VLAN ID 10. This means the guest can only

# This does not work, cannot create network device on vmbr0.10
# pct set 201 --net0 name=eth0,bridge=vmbr0.10,firewall=0,gw=172.19.10.1,ip=172.19.10.2/24
# Does not work:
# pct set 201 --net0 name=eth0,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=0,gw=172.17.10.1,ip=172.17.10.2/24,trunks=10
# Works:
# pct set 201 --net0 name=eth0,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=0,gw=172.17.10.1,ip=172.17.10.2/24,tag=10
pct set 201 --onboot 1

Optional: only required if host does not have this set up correctly (could be because network was not available at init)

pct set 201 --searchdomain lan.vanwerkhoven.org --nameserver 172.17.10.1

If SSH into guest fails or takes a long time, this can be due to LXC / Apparmor security features which prevent mount from executing. To solve, ensure nesting is allowed:

pct set 201 --features nesting=1

To enable Docker inside the LXC container, we need both nesting & keyctl:

pct set 201 --features nesting=1,keyctl=1

Start & log in, set root password, configure some basics

pct start 201
pct enter 201

passwd
apt install sudo vim
dpkg-reconfigure locales
dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

Add regular user, add to system groups, and set ssh key

adduser tim
usermod -aG adm,render,sudo,staff tim
mkdir -p ~tim/.ssh/
touch ~tim/.ssh/authorized_keys
chown -R tim:tim ~tim/.ssh
chmod og-rwx ~tim/.ssh/authorized_keys
cat << 'EOF' >>~tim/.ssh/authorized_keys
ssh-rsa AAAA...
EOF

# Allow non-root to use ping
setcap cap_net_raw+p $(which ping)

Update & upgrade and install automatic updates

sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade

sudo apt install unattended-upgrades
# Comment 'label=Debian' to not auto-update too much
sudo vi /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/50unattended-upgrades

# Tweak some settings
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/50unattended-upgrades
Unattended-Upgrade::Remove-Unused-Kernel-Packages "true";
Unattended-Upgrade::Remove-New-Unused-Dependencies "true";
Unattended-Upgrade::Remove-Unused-Dependencies "true";
EOF

sudo unattended-upgrades --dry-run --debug

Install Docker. Need to use custom apt repo to get latest version which works inside an unprivileged LXC container (as proposed on the docker forums):

sudo apt remove docker docker-engine docker.io containerd runc docker-compose

sudo apt update

sudo apt install \
   ca-certificates \
   curl \
   gnupg \
   lsb-release

sudo mkdir -m 0755 -p /etc/apt/keyrings
curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/debian/gpg | sudo gpg --dearmor -o /etc/apt/keyrings/docker.gpg

echo \
  "deb [arch=$(dpkg --print-architecture) signed-by=/etc/apt/keyrings/docker.gpg] https://download.docker.com/linux/debian \
  $(lsb_release -cs) stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list > /dev/null

sudo apt update
sudo apt install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io docker-buildx-plugin docker-compose-plugin

sudo docker run hello-world

Non-solutions

I also tried these options that didn’t work for my older Docker version:

And we maybe need to change boot parameters:

sed -i 's/^GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet/GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=0/' /etc/default/grub

This failed.

Docker inside (unpriviliged) LXC not supported, but can be made to work.

Try newer version of docker as proposed on the docker forums

sudo apt-get install docker-compose-plugin docker-compose docker.io

Fails.

Try to install all packages:

sudo apt-get install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io docker-buildx-plugin docker-compose-plugin

Works! So it was missing a package?!

Now try to install the debian original docker (fewer apt repositories is more stability)

sudo apt-get remove docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io docker-buildx-plugin docker-compose-plugin

Install & configure Debian server as VM (not used)

# Get ISO from https://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/current/amd64/iso-cd/
ls /var/lib/vz/template/iso/
qm create 200 --name proteus --description "Debian VM server" --cores 4 --memory 12288 --net0 virtio,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=0,tag=10 --ide2 media=cdrom,file=local:iso/debian-11.6.0-amd64-netinst.iso --virtio0 thinpool_vms:300
# ipconfig0 did not work? --ipconfig0 gw=172.17.10.1,ip=172.17.10.2/24 
qm set 200 -serial0 socket
qm set 200 --onboot 1

Open terminal via Spice/xterm.js, install image, remove image, and reboot

qm start 200

# in guest: install image as usual
qm set 200 --ide2 none
qm reboot 200

Add QEMU guest agent

qm set 200 --agent 1
qm agent 200 ping

Test docker

apt install docker.io docker-compose
sudo docker run hello-world

Works

Enable GPU sharing in VM:

# vi /etc/default/grub
# GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet intel_pstate=disable
#intel_iommu=on 
#i915.enable_gvt=1"
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT+="intel_iommu=on i915.enable_gvt=1"
update-grub && reboot

# Check for success
cat /proc/cmdline
dmesg | grep -e DMAR -e IOMMU

# Load modules
cat << 'EOF' >> /etc/modules
# Modules required for PCI passthrough
vfio
vfio_iommu_type1
vfio_pci
vfio_virqfd

# Modules required for Intel GVT
kvmgt
exngt
vfio-mdev
EOF
reboot

# Pass through PCI --> Via GUI
# Not sure how this works on CLI, something like: qm set 200 --hostpci0 0000:00:02.0,mdev=i915-GVTg_V5_4

Expose bulk storage to Debian server

I prefer to keep the guest OS disks smallish so I can back them up. However if I want to store bulk data I don’t have space. To solve this there are three approaches to share storage from host to guest:

  1. Via Samba on host machine, mount in guest. Pro: always works. Con: more complex setup, increases host attack surface
  2. Via bind mount points. Pro: works well in LXC. Fast. Con: only LXC (selected)
  3. Via disk pass-through. Pro: works well in KVM (& LXC?). Fast. Con: cannot write from two guests simultaneously.

Automounting Samba in LXC guest didn’t work for me, giving error “Starting of mnt-bulk.automount not supported.” LXC containers are special, apparently. However I document the steps here for reference.

1. Share data via Samba (not used)

Set up Samba server on Proxmox.

Install, disable unnecessary netbios deamon, and stop samba itself during configuration.

apt install samba
systemctl stop nmbd.service
systemctl disable nmbd.service
systemctl stop smbd.service
# systemctl disable smbd.service

Configure

[global]
   server string = pve.vanwerkhoven.org
   server role = standalone server
   interfaces = lo vmbr0.10
   bind interfaces only = yes
   disable netbios = yes
   smb ports = 445
   log file = /var/log/samba/smb.log
   max log size = 10000
   # log level = 3 passdb:5 auth:5

Add users

adduser --home /mnt/bulk --no-create-home --shell /usr/sbin/nologin --disabled-password --uid 1010 bulkdata
adduser --home /mnt/backup/mbp --no-create-home --shell /usr/sbin/nologin --disabled-password --uid 1011 backupmbp
adduser --home /mnt/backup/mba --no-create-home --shell /usr/sbin/nologin --disabled-password --uid 1012 backupmba
adduser --home /mnt/backup/tex --no-create-home --shell /usr/sbin/nologin --disabled-password --uid 1013 backuptex

chown backupmbp:backupmbp /mnt/backup/mbp
chown backupmba:backupmba /mnt/backup/mba
chown backuptex:backuptex /mnt/backup/tex
chown bulkdata:bulkdata /mnt/bulk

chmod 2770 /mnt/backup/{mba,mbp}
chmod 2770 /mnt/bulk

openssl rand -base64 20
smbpasswd -a backupmbp
smbpasswd -a backupmba
smbpasswd -a backuptex

smbpasswd -e backupmba
smbpasswd -e backupmbp
smbpasswd -e backuptex

Set up shares

[bulk]
    path = /mnt/bulk
    browseable = yes
    read only = no
    writable = yes
    force create mode = 0660
    force directory mode = 2770
    valid users = sambarw
[backupmbp]
    comment = Time Machine mbp
    path = /mnt/backup/mbp
    browseable = yes
    writeable = yes
    create mask = 0600
    directory mask = 0700
    spotlight = yes
    vfs objects = catia fruit streams_xattr
    fruit:aapl = yes
    fruit:time machine = yes
    valid users = backupmbp
[backupmba]
    comment = Time Machine MBA
    path = /mnt/backup/mba
    browseable = yes
    writeable = yes
    create mask = 0600
    directory mask = 0700
    spotlight = yes
    vfs objects = catia fruit streams_xattr
    fruit:aapl = yes
    fruit:time machine = yes
    valid users = backupmba

Restart Samba

systemctl restart smbd.service

Now mount Samba share automatically on client from pve host:

sudo apt install smbclient cifs-utils

cat << 'EOF' >>/root/.smbcredentials
user=sambarw
password=redacted
EOF

Automount, but ensure mounting doesn’t fail because network is not up yet.

sudo mkdir /mnt/bulk
sudo chown root:users /mnt/bulk/
sudo chmod g+rw /mnt/bulk/
sudo cat << 'EOF' >>/etc/fstab
//pve.lan.vanwerkhoven.org/bulk /mnt/bulk   cifs    credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,rw,uid=tim,gid=users,auto,x-systemd.automount,_netdev      0       0
EOF

2. Share data via mount points (LXC only) (selected)

In the second approach, we mount something on the host and propagate it to the guest, or create a privileged container.

Mount points require some care regarding UID/GIDs (e.g. see documented on the proxmox wiki), but overall seem an easy method to get storage from host to guest.

What worked for me was adding a mountpoint using pct:

sudo mkdir /mnt/bulk
sudo chown tim:users /mnt/bulk
sudo chmod g+w /mnt/bulk

Make user on host (bulkdata:bulkdata) that we’ll propagate UID/GID to in the guest:

adduser --home /mnt/bulk --no-create-home --shell /usr/sbin/nologin --disabled-password --uid 1010 bulkdata
adduser --home /mnt/backup/mbp --no-create-home --shell /usr/sbin/nologin --disabled-password --uid 1011 backupmbp
adduser --home /mnt/backup/mba --no-create-home --shell /usr/sbin/nologin --disabled-password --uid 1012 backupmba
adduser --home /mnt/backup/tex --no-create-home --shell /usr/sbin/nologin --disabled-password --uid 1013 backuptex
usermod -aG bulkdata tim

Set up UID/GID mapping to propagate users 1010–1020 to the same uid on the host (e.g. using this tool). N.B. this is only required if you want to write from both the host and guest. If you only write in (multiple) guests, you only need to ensure the user/group writing from the different guests have the same UID/GID.

cat << 'EOF' >>/etc/pve/lxc/201.conf
# uid map: from uid 0 map 1010 uids (in the ct) to the range starting 100000 (on the host), so 0..1010 (ct) → 100000..101010 (host)
lxc.idmap = u 0 100000 1010
lxc.idmap = g 0 100000 1010
# we map 10 uids starting from uid 1010 onto 1010, so 1010 → 1010
lxc.idmap = u 1010 1010 10
lxc.idmap = g 1010 1010 10
# we map the rest of 65535 from 1020 upto 101020, so 1020..65535 → 101020..165535
lxc.idmap = u 1020 101020 64516
lxc.idmap = g 1020 101020 64516
EOF

Add the following to /etc/subuid and /etc/subgid (there might already be entries in the file, also for root):

cat << 'EOF' >>/etc/subuid
root:1010:10
EOF
cat << 'EOF' >>/etc/subgid
root:1010:10
EOF

Now mount the actual bind point

pct shutdown 201
pct set 201 -mp0 /mnt/bulk,mp=/mnt/bulk
pct start 201

and that’s it. Now we can continue configuring the services.

3. Via disk pass through (KVM only) (not used)

Pass through bulk storage using volume pass through with virtio (should be faster than SCSI or IDE):

qm set 200 -virtio1 /dev/disk/by-id/dm-name-pve-lv_bulk,backup=0,snapshot=0
#qm set 200 -scsi1 /dev/disk/by-id/dm-name-pve-lv_bulk,backup=0,snapshot=0

Proxmox hardening

Tips from Samuel’s Website and pveproxy(8) man page

Limit server access to specific IPs:

cat << 'EOF' >>/etc/default/pveproxy
# TvW 20230114 added for security reasons
DENY_FROM="all"
ALLOW_FROM="172.17.10.0/24"
POLICY="allow"

# For PVE-Manager >= 6.4 only.
LISTEN_IP="172.17.10.4"
EOF

Disable NFS:

cat << 'EOF' >>/etc/default/nfs-common
# TvW 20230114 disabled for security reasons
NEED_STATD=no
EOF

Install Unifi Network Application (controller) as LXC container

Install Unifi Network Application (Controller) on Debian (only supported Linux platform) using the Unifi guide and the the Alpine guide.

Get images using Proxmox’ Proxmox VE Appliance Manager:

pveam update
pveam available
pveam download local debian-11-standard_11.6-1_amd64.tar.zst #OR Alpine?
pveam list local

Check storage to use

pvesm status

Create and configure LXC container based on downloaded image. Ensure it’s an unprivileged container to protect our host and router running on it. Also configure networking, run on Proxmox’ vmbr0 with VLAN ID 10 in the Management VLAN.

pct create 202 local:vztmpl/debian-11-standard_11.6-1_amd64.tar.zst --description "Debian LXC Unifi Network Application" --hostname unifi --rootfs thinpool_vms:8 --unprivileged 1 --cores 2 --memory 2048 --ssh-public-keys /root/.ssh/tim.id_rsa.pub --net0 name=eth0,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=0,gw=172.17.10.1,ip=172.17.10.5/24,tag=10
pct set 202 --onboot 1

Optional: only required if host does not have this set up correctly (could be because network was not available at init):

pct set 202 --searchdomain lan.vanwerkhoven.org --nameserver 172.17.10.1

Start & log in, set root password, configure some basics

pct start 202
pct enter 202

passwd
apt install sudo vim
dpkg-reconfigure locales
dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

If SSH into guest fails or takes a long time, this can be due to LXC / Apparmor security features which prevent mount from executing. To solve, ensure nesting is allowed:

pct shutdown 202
pct set 202 --features nesting=1
pct start 202

Hardening sshd is not required: by default, root is only allowed to login with pubkey authentication.

Install required packages to add Unifi apt source, then add new source & related keys

apt-get update && apt-get install ca-certificates apt-transport-https
echo 'deb https://www.ui.com/downloads/unifi/debian stable ubiquiti' | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/100-ubnt-unifi.list
wget -O /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/unifi-repo.gpg https://dl.ui.com/unifi/unifi-repo.gpg 

Unifi (v7.3.83 in my case) has very specific MongoDB requirements:

 unifi : Depends: mongodb-server (>= 2.4.10) but it is not installable or
                  mongodb-10gen (>= 2.4.14) but it is not installable or
                  mongodb-org-server (>= 2.6.0) but it is not installable
         Depends: mongodb-server (< 1:4.0.0) but it is not installable or
                  mongodb-10gen (< 4.0.0) but it is not installable or
                  mongodb-org-server (< 4.0.0) but it is not installable

Prep for specific MongoDB version, see this guide. The MongoDB repo for Stretch (Debian 9) has the newest compatible version (3.6) with a matching pgp key, a bit newer than the 3.4 version as written in the Unifi guide. The PGP key for this repo will expire on 2023-12-09, not sure what will happen then.

wget -O /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/mongodb-repo.gpg https://pgp.mongodb.com/server-3.6.pub
echo "deb https://repo.mongodb.org/apt/debian stretch/mongodb-org/3.6 main" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-3.6.list
apt-get update

Install Unifi Network Application from apt, this takes 560 MB of disk space for the package & required dependencies (yeah, for just a controller).

apt-get update && apt-get install unifi

Enable, autostart, and start Unifi service:

systemctl is-enabled unifi
systemctl enable unifi

Update & upgrade and install automatic updates

apt update && apt upgrade

apt install unattended-upgrades
# Comment 'label=Debian' to not auto-update too much
vi /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/50unattended-upgrades

# Tweak some settings
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/50unattended-upgrades
Unattended-Upgrade::Remove-Unused-Kernel-Packages "true";
Unattended-Upgrade::Remove-New-Unused-Dependencies "true";
Unattended-Upgrade::Remove-Unused-Dependencies "true";
EOF

sudo unattended-upgrades --dry-run --debug

Migrate services

Install dependencies, prefer python packages via apt for system-wide install and potentially some security because we don’t install from public pip repository

apt install jq curl python3-netcdf4

Service overview

Now:

  1. InfluxDB + data (port X) - via apt 1.6 (else we need special apt repo) –> OK DONE
    • Port configuration from old proteus
    • Set up new influxdb with accounts (generic write user and read user and admin)
  2. Worker scripts
    1. All scripts:
      1. Unify naming: <source>2<target>, e.g. knmi2influxdb
      2. Update in-place with credentials, ideally with backwards compatibility
    2. co2signal –> OK DONE
      • migrate to HA: no, HA has time lag issue
      • normalize, separate secrets, add influxdb login: OK
      • tested: OK
    3. knmi –> OK DONE
      • migrate to HA: no, keep separate
      • normalize, separate secrets, add influxdb login
      • tested: OK
    4. SBFspot –> OK Done
      • Check which scripts are being used, archive old ones
      • Read secrets from external file
      • migrated: OK tested: OK
    5. evohome
      • migrate to HA: yes?
      • needed in future: no
      • migrated: OK tested: NOK
    6. mqtt2influxdb –> OK done
      • migrate to HA: not possible, different functionality
      • migrated: OK tested: OK
    7. smeter –> OK done
      • migrate to HA: yes?
      • migrated: OK tested: OK
    8. water_meter_reader –> OK Done
      • migrate to HA –> already working via esphome detector & mqtt push
    9. epexspot –> OK done
      • migrate to HA: no?
      • migrated: OK tested: OK
    10. hue
      • migrate to HA: no, requires too much calculation/processing
      • migrated: OK tested: NOK
    11. mkwebdata
      • migrate to HA: no
      • migrated: OK tested: OK
    12. multical –> OK done
      • migrate to HA: no, custom stuff
  3. Collectd (for data generation/collection) – on proxmox?
    • install on proxmox
    • migrate configuration
  4. Nginx + letsencrypt (port 80/443) –> OK DONE
  5. Docker
    • portainer (port 9000) –> not required OK DONE
    • Nextcloud (port 9080) –> run on proteus port @ nextcloud.vanwerkhoven.org –> OK DONE
    • bpatrik/pigallery2 (for personal photo sharing) (port 3080) –> run on proteus @ photos.vanwerkhoven.org –> OK DONE
    • Home Assistant (port 8143) –> run on proteus @ homeassistant.lan.vanwerkhoven.org (VPN) –> OK DONE
    • Grafana (port 3000) – via vendor apt repository @ grafana.vanwerkhoven.org –> OK DONE
    • lscr.io/linuxserver/unifi-controller (for Unifi AP management) –> separate LXC @ unifi.lan.vanwerkhoven.org –> OK DONE
  6. Mosquitto (glueing home automation) – on proteus –> OK DONE

Later:

  1. Transmission (downloading torrents) – on proteus
  2. Plex/Jellyfin (HTPC) – needs hw accel, required running in privileged container
  3. smbd (for Time Machine backups) – on proteus

Service hardware requirements

Get HW accel in guest/container: https://www.reddit.com/r/jellyfin/comments/s417qw/hardware_acceleration_inside_proxmox_lxc_not/

Prepare old server

  1. Stop cron jobs from collecting data (not strictly necessary)

Docker

First install docker (also see above)

sudo apt install docker.io docker-compose

Reverse proxy options for containers

Optional: prepare forwarding traffic from WAN to containers using a reverse proxy, following some best practices, e.g. using nginx-proxy.

  1. Expose & publish Docker container ports on host, then reverse proxy to specific port (e.g. -p 127.0.0.1:8000:8000)
    • Pro: already operational, least trust required, fastest solution
    • Con: occupies host ports that are never used, potentially exposes services to users with access to host, requires manual acme management
  2. Use internal Docker network to map reverse proxy (e.g. dynamically using nginx-proxy)
    • Pro: easy solution (well that was never a consideration /s), does not expose ports, automatic acme handling
    • Con: requires trust in 3rd party nginx implementation, slower(?) than native nginx, requires exposing Docker socket granting it root on host.
  3. Use Traefik to reverse proxy for Docker (bonus: built-in ACME challenge)
    • Pro: easy solution, does not expose ports, automatic acme/letsencrypt handling
    • Con: slower than nginx, new approach, requires exposing Docker socket granting it root on host.

I decided to go for option 1: most effort and most overkill (security/speed) for my situation :p

Portainer to ease container management –> not needed

And optionally install portainer to help manage docker. Bind to localhost to ensure this service cannot be accessed outside the machine

sudo docker volume create portainer_data
sudo docker run -d \
	--name portainer \
	--restart=always \
	-p 127.0.0.1:8000:8000 -p 127.0.0.1:9443:9443 \
	-v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock \
	-v portainer_data:/data \
	portainer/portainer-ce:latest
sudo docker ps

InfluxDB

Make backup on old system

/usr/bin/influxd backup -portable /home/tim/backup/influx_snapshot.db/$(date +%Y%m%d)-migrate

Use (old) native Debian package for stability, security & least additional apt repositories

apt install influxdb-client influxdb
scp -P 10022 -r tim@172.17.10.107:/home/tim/backup/influx_snapshot.db/20230713-migrate .
influxd restore -portable /home/tim/backup/influx_snapshot.db/20230713-migrate/

Migrate config, reload

scp -P 10022 tim@172.17.10.107:/etc/influxdb/influxdb.conf influxdb.conf-migrate
sudo diff /etc/influxdb/influxdb.conf /etc/influxdb/influxdb.conf-migrate
sudo service influxdb restart

Add users in InfluxDB

influx -precision rfc3339ls -a

CREATE USER influxadmin WITH PASSWORD 'pwd' WITH ALL PRIVILEGES

CREATE USER influxwrite WITH PASSWORD 'pwd'
GRANT WRITE ON collectd TO influxwrite
GRANT WRITE ON smarthomev3 TO influxwrite
CREATE USER influxread WITH PASSWORD 'pwd'
GRANT READ ON collectd TO influxread
GRANT READ ON smarthomev3 TO influxread
CREATE USER influxreadwrite WITH PASSWORD 'pwd'
GRANT ALL ON collectd TO influxreadwrite
GRANT ALL ON smarthomev3 TO influxreadwrite

Test account wiht curl

chmod o-r ~/.profile
cat << 'EOF' >>~/.profile
export INFLUX_USERNAME=influxadmin
export INFLUX_PASSWORD=pwd
EOF

curl -G http://localhost:8086/query --data-urlencode "q=SHOW DATABASES"
curl -G http://localhost:8086/query -u influxwrite:pwd   --data-urlencode "q=SHOW DATABASES"

In case InfluxDB is not running, check that path to types.db is correct.

Failed to connect to http://localhost:8086: Get "http://localhost:8086/ping": dial tcp [::1]:8086: connect: connection refused
Please check your connection settings and ensure 'influxd' is running.

Restore retention policies (Archive) – NB this was not necessary when restoring from backup

SHOW RETENTION POLICIES ON collectd
CREATE RETENTION POLICY "always" ON "collectd" DURATION INF REPLICATION 1
CREATE RETENTION POLICY "five_days" ON "collectd" DURATION 5d REPLICATION 1 DEFAULT

# For Grafana viewing - see https://github.com/grafana/grafana/issues/4262#issuecomment-475570324
INSERT INTO always rp_config,idx=1 rp="five_days",start=0i,end=432000000i -9223372036854775806
INSERT INTO always rp_config,idx=2 rp="always",start=432000000i,end=3110400000000i -9223372036854775806

# Restore continuous queries
cq_60m_cpu       CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq_60m_cpu ON collectd BEGIN SELECT mean(value) AS value INTO collectd.always.cpu FROM collectd.five_days.cpu GROUP BY time(1h), * END
cq_60m_cpufreq   CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq_60m_cpufreq ON collectd BEGIN SELECT mean(value) AS value INTO collectd.always.cpufreq FROM collectd.five_days.cpufreq GROUP BY time(1h), * END
cq_60m_df        CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq_60m_df ON collectd BEGIN SELECT mean(value) AS value INTO collectd.always.df FROM collectd.five_days.df GROUP BY time(1h), * END
cq_60m_interface CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq_60m_interface ON collectd BEGIN SELECT mean(rx) AS rx, mean(tx) AS tx INTO collectd.always.interface FROM collectd.five_days.interface GROUP BY time(1h), * END
cq_60m_iwinfo    CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq_60m_iwinfo ON collectd BEGIN SELECT mean(value) AS value INTO collectd.always.iwinfo FROM collectd.five_days.iwinfo GROUP BY time(1h), * END
cq_60m_load      CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq_60m_load ON collectd BEGIN SELECT mean(longterm) AS longterm, mean(midterm) AS midterm, mean(shortterm) AS shortterm INTO collectd.always.load FROM collectd.five_days.load GROUP BY time(1h), * END
cq_60m_memory    CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq_60m_memory ON collectd BEGIN SELECT mean(value) AS value INTO collectd.always.memory FROM collectd.five_days.memory GROUP BY time(1h), * END
cq_60m_ping      CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq_60m_ping ON collectd BEGIN SELECT mean(value) AS value INTO collectd.always.ping FROM collectd.five_days.ping GROUP BY time(1h), * END
SHOW CONTINUOUS QUERIES

Home assistant

Migrate config from old machine, see https://www.home-assistant.io/installation/linux#install-home-assistant-container

# Create backup on old config (HA Core)
sudo systemctl stop home-assistant@homeassistant.service
sudo tar cvf ~/homeassistant.tar.gz ~homeassistant/.homeassistant

# Move to new machine & right place
scp oldserver:homeassistant.tar.gz newserver:/var/lib/
scp -r -P 10022 tim@172.17.10.107:homeassistant.tar.gz .
cd /var/lib/ && sudo tar xvf ./homeassistant.tar.gz
sudo mv .homeassistant homeassistant
sudo chown root:root homeassistant
sudo chmod og-rwx homeassistant/

Start docker container via docker run or docker compose:

# Run new docker, do not use --privileged for safety and easier running in LXC
# https://community.home-assistant.io/t/why-does-the-documentation-say-we-need-priviledged-mode-for-a-docker-install-now/336556/2
sudo docker run -d \
  --name homeassistant \
  --restart=unless-stopped \
  -e TZ=Europe/Brussels \
  -v /var/lib/homeassistant:/config \
  --network=host \
  ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable

cat << 'EOF' >> ~tim/docker/home-assistant-compose.yml
version: '3'
# https://www.home-assistant.io/installation/linux#docker-compose
# docker compose -f home-assistant-compose.yml up -d 
services:
  homeassistant:
    container_name: homeassistant
    image: "ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable"
    volumes:
      - /var/lib/homeassistant:/config
      - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
    restart: unless-stopped
    network_mode: host
      #devices:
      #      - /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0
EOF
sudo docker compose -f home-assistant-compose.yml up -d

Forward Zigbee USB device

ls -l /dev/serial/by-id/usb-dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-if00
# lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 Jul 27 20:50 /dev/serial/by-id/usb-dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-if00 -> ../../ttyACM0
root@pve:/etc/pve/lxc# ls -l /dev/ttyACM0 
#crw-rw---- 1 root dialout 166, 0 Jul 27 20:51 /dev/ttyACM0

mkdir -p /lxc/201/devices
cd /lxc/201/devices/
sudo mknod -m 660 usb-dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-if00 c 166 0
sudo chown 100000:100020 usb-dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-if00
ls -al /lxc/201/devices/usb-dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-if00

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee -a /etc/pve/lxc/201.conf
lxc.cgroup2.devices.allow: c 166:* rwm
lxc.mount.entry: /lxc/201/devices/usb-dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-if00 dev/usb-dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-if00 none bind,optional,create=file
EOF

Reverse proxy via nginx

server {
	listen 443 ssl http2;
	listen [::]:443 ssl http2;

	server_name homeassistant.vanwerkhoven.org;

	location / {
		# include snippets/nginx-server-proxy-tim.conf;
		# TvW 20230222 Default options for server blocks acting as reverse proxy. Should be part of location / { }
		# include modules-available/nginx-server-proxy-tim.conf; 
		proxy_set_header Host $host;
		proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
		proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
		proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;
		proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $server_name;
		#proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Ssl on;
		#proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
		#proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";

		#client_max_body_size 16G;
		proxy_buffering off;
		proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8123;
		proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
		proxy_set_header Connection upgrade;
	}
	# include snippets/nginx-server-ssl-tim.conf;
	# TvW 20230222 Default options for server blocks serving ssl

	# Added 20190122 TvW Add HTTPS strict transport security
	add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains" always;

	ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/vanwerkhoven.org/fullchain.pem; # managed by Certbot
	ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/vanwerkhoven.org/privkey.pem; # managed by Certbot
	include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf; # managed by Certbot
	ssl_dhparam /etc/letsencrypt/ssl-dhparams.pem; # managed by Certbot
}

Migrate HA to MariaDB

@TODO Figure out how to setup MariaDB later

Optimize configuration: add mariadb, influxdb, tweak recorder to only store relevant stuff https://smarthomescene.com/guides/optimize-your-home-assistant-database/ https://community.home-assistant.io/t/migrating-home-assistant-database-from-sqlite-to-mariadb/96895

# Remove 
sudo apt remove mysql-server-8.0 mysql-server mysql-client-8.0 mysql-client-core-8.0 mysql-common
sudo apt-get remove --purge
sudo apt install mariadb-server

# Fix apparmor because of old mysql installation
# https://askubuntu.com/questions/1185710/mariadb-fails-despite-apparmor-profile
# https://stackoverflow.com/questions/40997257/mysql-service-fails-to-start-hangs-up-timeout-ubuntu-mariadb
echo "# TvW 20230127 fix apparmor issue mariadb" | sudo tee -a /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld
echo "/usr/sbin/mysqld { }" | sudo tee -a /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld
sudo apparmor_parser -v -R /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld
sudo systemctl restart mariadb
sudo reboot
# Did not help? Try reboot
#sudo /etc/init.d/apparmor reload

sudo mysql_secure_installation

## create database
mysql -e 'CREATE SCHEMA IF NOT EXISTS `hass_db` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8mb4'
## create user (use a safe password please)
mysql -e "CREATE USER 'hass_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'pwd'"
mysql -e "GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON hass_db.* TO 'hass_user'@'localhost'"
mysql -e "GRANT usage ON *.* TO 'hass_user'@'localhost'"

Migrate: method 1, use only SQL

pip install sqlite3-to-mysql
sqlite3mysql -f ./home-assistant_v2.db -d hass_db -u hass_user -p

Migrate: method 2, todo

sqlite3 ~homeassistant/.homeassistant/home-assistant_v2.db .dump > hadump.sql
git clone https://github.com/athlite/sqlite3-to-mysql

recorder:
  auto_purge: true
  purge_keep_days: 21
  auto_repack: true
  db_url: mysql://user:password@localhost/homeassistant?unix_socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock&charset=utf8mb4

Grafana

We can either use apt or the docker image. I go for apt here so I can more easily re-use my letsencrypt certificate via /etc/grafana/grafana.ini.

Install for Debian

sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https
sudo apt-get install -y software-properties-common wget
sudo wget -q -O /usr/share/keyrings/grafana.key https://apt.grafana.com/gpg.key

Add repo

echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/grafana.key] https://apt.grafana.com stable main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/grafana.list

Install

sudo apt-get install grafana

Start now & start automatically

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl start grafana-server
sudo systemctl status grafana-server
sudo systemctl enable grafana-server.service

Enable HTTPS using letsencrypt certificate

sudo ln -s /etc/letsencrypt/live/vanwerkhoven.org/privkey.pem /etc/grafana/grafana.key
sudo ln -s /etc/letsencrypt/live/vanwerkhoven.org/fullchain.pem /etc/grafana/grafana.crt

# Allow access
sudo groupadd letsencrypt-cert
sudo usermod --append --groups letsencrypt-cert grafana

sudo chgrp -R letsencrypt-cert /etc/letsencrypt/*
sudo chmod -R g+rx /etc/letsencrypt/*
sudo chgrp -R grafana /etc/grafana/grafana.crt /etc/grafana/grafana.key
sudo chmod 400 /etc/grafana/grafana.crt /etc/grafana/grafana.key

Migrate configuration

  1. Install used plugin on new server – later
  2. Stop Grafana service on source and destination server – OK
  3. Copy /var/lib/grafana/grafana.db from old to new server – OK
  4. Check /etc/grafana/grafana.ini - OK
  5. Reconnect to datasource
scp -P 10022 tim@172.17.10.107:/etc/grafana/grafana.ini /etc/grafana/grafana.ini-migrate
sudo diff /etc/grafana/grafana.ini /etc/grafana/grafana.ini-migrate

Set up notifications for everything https://grafana.com/docs/grafana/latest/alerting/fundamentals/alert-rules/message-templating/ https://grafana.com/docs/grafana/latest/alerting/manage-notifications/template-notifications/using-go-templating-language/

Nextcloud

Install regular Docker image (instead of the all-in-one image with possibly too much junk):

cat << 'EOF' | tee ~tim/docker/nextcloud-compose.yml
version: '2'
# https://github.com/nextcloud/docker#running-this-image-with-docker-compose
# docker compose -f nextcloud-compose.yml up -d 

volumes:
  nextcloud:
  db:

services:
  db:
    image: mariadb:10.5
    restart: always
    command: --transaction-isolation=READ-COMMITTED --log-bin=binlog --binlog-format=ROW
    volumes:
      - db:/var/lib/mysql
    environment:
      - MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=
      - MYSQL_PASSWORD=
      - MYSQL_DATABASE=nextcloud
      - MYSQL_USER=nextcloud

  app:
    image: nextcloud
    restart: always
    ports:
      - 9081:80
    links:
      - db
    volumes:
      - nextcloud:/var/www/html
    environment:
      - MYSQL_PASSWORD=
      - MYSQL_DATABASE=nextcloud
      - MYSQL_USER=nextcloud
      - MYSQL_HOST=db
EOF

sudo docker compose -f nextcloud-compose.yml up -d 

Migrate data, then force Nextcloud to scan for new files (see useful docs on external storage).

rsync -e 'ssh -p 10022' --archive --progress --verbose root@172.17.10.107:/var/snap/nextcloud/common/nextcloud/data/timlow/files/ .
docker exec -u www-data 715a4e700667 php occ files:scan --all

Add https schema for reverse proxy config

vim /var/lib/docker/volumes/docker_nextcloud/_data/config/config.php 
# 'overwrite.cli.url' => 'https://nextcloud.vanwerkhoven.org'
# 'overwritehost'     => 'nextcloud.vanwerkhoven.org',
# 'overwriteprotocol' => 'https',
# 'overwritewebroot'  => '/',

Enable file uploads >2M

Optional: make certain folders accessible outside Docker using bind mount, first as trial, then permanently on boot via /etc/fstab:

sudo mount -o bind /var/lib/docker/volumes/docker_nextcloud/_data/data/tim/files/alexandra /media/alexandra

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab
/var/lib/docker/volumes/docker_nextcloud/_data/data/tim/files/alexandra /media/alexandra none bind
EOF

PiGallery2

Configure docker compose file for PiGallery2 only, we do the reverse nginx proxy ourselves. Furthermore, bind mount the images directory directly to the source in the Nextcloud Docker volume.

cat << 'EOF' > ~tim/docker/pigallery2-compose.yml
version: '3.2'
# Version 3.2 required for long-syntax volume configuration -- see https://docs.docker.com/compose/compose-file/compose-file-v3/#volumes
# Source: https://github.com/bpatrik/pigallery2/blob/master/docker/README.md
# docker compose -f pigallery2-compose.yml up -d

services:
  pigallery2:
    image: bpatrik/pigallery2:latest
    container_name: pigallery2
    environment:
      - NODE_ENV=production # set to 'debug' for full debug logging
    volumes:
      - "/var/lib/pigallery/config:/app/data/config" # CHANGE ME -> OK
      - "db-data:/app/data/db"
      # - "/media/alexandra:/app/data/images:ro" # CHANGE ME -> OK
      - type: bind
        source: /var/lib/docker/volumes/docker_nextcloud/_data/data/tim/files/alexandra/
        target: /app/data/images
        read_only: true
      - "/var/lib/pigallery/tmp:/app/data/tmp" # CHANGE ME -> OK
    ports:
      - 3010:80
    restart: always

volumes:
  db-data:
EOF

sudo docker compose -f pigallery2-compose.yml up -d 

Add virtual host, something like below:

server {
        listen 443 ssl http2;
        listen [::]:443 ssl http2;

        server_name photos.vanwerkhoven.org;

        location / {
                include snippets/nginx-server-proxy-tim.conf; 
                client_max_body_size 1G;
                proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:3010;
         }
        include snippets/nginx-server-ssl-tim.conf;

        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/vanwerkhoven.org/fullchain.pem; # managed by Certbot
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/vanwerkhoven.org/privkey.pem; # managed by Certbot
}

Login, configure settings, create sharing link.

Mosquitto

Install daemon and clients

sudo apt install mosquitto mosquitto-clients

Port configuration, don’t use SSL for now

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee  /etc/mosquitto/conf.d/tim.conf
# TvW 20190818
# From https://www.digitalocean.com/community/questions/how-to-setup-a-mosquitto-mqtt-server-and-receive-data-from-owntracks
connection_messages true
log_timestamp true

# https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-install-and-secure-the-mosquitto-mqtt-messaging-broker-on-ubuntu-16-04
# TvW 201908
allow_anonymous false
password_file /etc/mosquitto/passwd

listener 1883
EOF

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /etc/mosquitto/conf.d/ssl-tim.conf.off
# Letsencrypt needs different CA https://mosquitto.org/blog/2015/12/using-lets-encrypt-certificates-with-mosquitto/ 
# Or not?
#cafile /etc/ssl/certs/DST_Root_CA_X3.pem
certfile /etc/letsencrypt/live/vanwerkhoven.org/cert.pem
cafile /etc/letsencrypt/live/vanwerkhoven.org/chain.pem
keyfile /etc/letsencrypt/live/vanwerkhoven.org/privkey.pem

tls_version tlsv1.2
listener 8883
EOF

Port users from old server

sudo touch /etc/mosquitto/passwd
sudo chown mosquitto /etc/mosquitto/passwd
sudo chmod og-rwx /etc/mosquitto/passwd
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee -a /etc/mosquitto/passwd
user:$6$SALT$7HASH==
EOF

Test run config (sudo is important, else you might get Error: Unable to write pid file.)

sudo /usr/sbin/mosquitto -c /etc/mosquitto/mosquitto.conf -v

If running mosquitto >2.0 and using letsencrypt certificates, ensure to copy them properly after deployment using e.g. this script.

esphome

Fix IP / hostname of esp workers:

IP Address MAC address State Lease start Lease expiration Remaining Pool Hostname


172.17.40.101 84:0d:8e:8f:4e:11 active 2023/07/15 21:40:49 2023/07/16 21:40:49 0:49:00 vlan40 esp8266-iapetus 172.17.40.102 2c:f4:32:4a:a3:3e active 2023/07/16 15:42:39 2023/07/17 15:42:39 18:50:50 vlan40 esp-kidsroom –> DONE 172.17.40.103 84:f3:eb:0d:c1:b8 active 2023/07/16 15:45:51 2023/07/17 15:45:51 18:54:02 vlan40 esp-bedroom 172.17.40.104 84:0d:8e:8f:55:6c active 2023/07/16 16:33:17 2023/07/17 16:33:17 19:41:28 vlan40 esp-living 172.17.20.106 84:0d:8e:8f:52:f5 active 2023/07/16 04:14:28 2023/07/17 04:14:28 7:22:39 vlan20 esp-mobile

Worker scripts

co2signal2influxdb

Done, no extra actions

SBFspot

Because it’s not possible to tunnel bluetooth on LXC guests, install this one on pve host (source (~January 2020) (’ Bluetooth in Linux funktioniert als Netzwerk-Device, sprich, beim Laden des passenden Treibers für Bluetooth-Hardware registriert sich das ‘hci’ device nicht als USB, sondern als Netzwerk-Adapter. Das durchreichen der USB /dev-node ist damit also nutzlos, weil die Kommunikation über ganz andere Schnittstellen funktioniert.’) - NB this and this don’t work for bluetooth).

Install SBFspot from source (no builds for x86):

sudo apt-get -y --no-install-recommends install bluetooth libbluetooth-dev
sudo apt-get install -y libboost-date-time-dev libboost-system-dev libboost-filesystem-dev libboost-regex-dev
sudo apt-get install -y sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev
sudo apt-get install -y g++
sudo apt-get install -y mosquitto-clients

sudo mkdir /var/log/sbfspot.3
sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/log/sbfspot.3

sbfspot_version=3.9.7
wget –c https://github.com/SBFspot/SBFspot/archive/V$sbfspot_version.tar.gz

# Slightly tweaked from docs
mkdir sbfspot-$sbfspot_version
tar -xvf V$sbfspot_version.tar.gz -C sbfspot-$sbfspot_version --strip-components 1

cd sbfspot-$sbfspot_version/SBFspot
make -j4 sqlite
sudo make install_sqlite

Port data / configuration from previous setup

scp -r -P 10022 tim@172.17.10.107:/usr/local/bin/sbfspot.3/SBFspot.cfg /usr/local/bin/sbfspot.3/
sudo chown root:tim /usr/local/bin/sbfspot.3/SBFspot.cfg
sudo chmod o-r SBFspot.cfg
sudo chmod g+w SBFspot.cfg
rsync -av -e "ssh -p 10022" tim@172.17.10.107:/var/lib/sbfspot /var/lib/

Check bluetooth devices, select one to use

hcitool dev
# Devices:
# 	hci1	00:19:0E:07:4E:47 # Belkin (Atech)
# 	hci0	04:EA:56:87:A6:12 # Intel

Add to cron

# SBFspot, every minute in sync with smeterd. since SBFspot/bluetooth don't
*/1 5-22 * * * /home/tim/workers/SBFspot2influxdb/get_sbfspot_daydata.sh
30 23 * * * /usr/local/bin/sbfspot.3/SBFspot -sp0 -ad7 -am2 -ae2 -finq -q 2>&1 | logger -p user.err; /home/tim/workers/SBFspot2influxdb/sbfspot_month2influxdb.sh

Repair any gaps from SMA history

/home/tim/workers/sbfspot2influxdb/sbfspot_month2influxdb.sh 20230714

epexspot2influx2b.py

pip install entsoe-py

heat meter

On host: identify & forward USB port

ls -l /dev/serial/by-id/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-if00-port0
# lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 Jul 15 22:01 /dev/serial/by-id/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-if00-port0 -> ../../ttyUSB0
ls -l /dev/ttyUSB1
crw-rw---- 1 root dialout 188, 1 Jul 15 22:03 /dev/ttyUSB1

mkdir -p /lxc/201/devices
cd /lxc/201/devices/
sudo mknod -m 660 usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-if00-port0 c 188 1
sudo chown 100000:100020 usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-if00-port0
ls -al /lxc/201/devices/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-if00-port0

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee -a /etc/pve/lxc/201.conf
lxc.cgroup2.devices.allow: c 188:* rwm
lxc.mount.entry: /lxc/201/devices/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-if00-port0 dev/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-if00-port0 none bind,optional,create=file
EOF

smeterd

On host: identify & forward USB port

ls -l /dev/serial/by-id/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-if00-port0 
# lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 Jul 15 22:01 /dev/serial/by-id/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-if00-port0 -> ../../ttyUSB0
ls -l /dev/ttyUSB0
# crw-rw---- 1 root dialout 188, 0 Jul 15 22:01 /dev/ttyUSB0

mkdir -p /lxc/201/devices
cd /lxc/201/devices/
mknod -m 660 usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-if00-port0 c 188 0
chown 100000:100020 usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-if00-port0
ls -al /lxc/201/devices/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-if00-port0

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee -a /etc/pve/lxc/201.conf
lxc.cgroup2.devices.allow: c 188:* rwm
lxc.mount.entry: /lxc/201/devices/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-if00-port0 dev/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-if00-port0 none bind,optional,create=file
EOF

Get script, add user to dialout

sudo apt install python3-pip -y
pip install smeterd

sudo usermod --append --groups dialout tim

Live DNS IP updater

@TODO migrate to new server & set live

Via gandi-live-dns-config.py

sudo install -m 600 -o tim -g tim /dev/null /etc/gandi-live-dns-config.py # equivalent to touch && chmod 600 && chown root:root
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /etc/gandi-live-dns-config.py
# my config
api_secret='secret API string goes here'
domains={'vanwerkhoven.org':['www','home','nextcloud','photos','alexandramaya']}
ttl='1800' # our IP doesnt change that often, 30min down is ~OK
ifconfig4='http://whatismyip.akamai.com' # returns ipv4
ifconfig6='' # disabled until we get IPv6 right for VPN/firewall/etc.
#ifconfig6='https://ifconfig.co/ip' # returns ipv6
interface='' # set empty because else we get local ipv6
EOF

# Add crontab entry
# TvW 20210927 Disabled because I want some subdomains ipv4-only (home) because 
# of VPN. Also, if my IPv6 address changes I need to update router firewalling
# and port forwarding as well. -- Update: run all hostnames as ipv4 only for now
*/5 * * * * python3 /home/tim/workers/gandi-live-dns/src/gandi-live-dns.py >/dev/null 2>&1 

Collectd

@TODO

Collect VyOS stats via SNMP

https://collectd.org/wiki/index.php/Plugin:SNMP https://support.vyos.io/en/kb/articles/snmpv3 https://docs.vyos.io/en/latest/configuration/service/snmp.html https://forum.vyos.io/t/difficulty-monitoring-vyos-through-snmp/4146

Set up SNMP on VyOS

Get SNMP browser - e.g. https://www.ireasoning.com/mibbrowser.shtml

Nginx

Here we install and configure nginx. This DigitalOcean guide is a useful reference for nginx configuration.

More sources:

Base install

sudo apt install nginx

Inspect, clean, and migrate nginx configuration:

sudo install -m 644 -o root -g root /dev/null /etc/nginx/conf.d/nginx-http-tim.conf # equivalent to touch && chmod 644 && chown root:root
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /etc/nginx/conf.d/nginx-http-tim.conf
# TvW 20230222 Additional default http block configuration settings, included automatically by default nginx.conf

# TvW 20200604 Disabled don't advertise version
server_tokens off;

# Add log format separate per virtual host so we can use goaccess to view who visits the server
# Parse using 
# `goaccess /var/log/nginx/access.log --log-format=VCOMBINED -o report-all.html`
log_format vcombined '$host: $remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" $status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" "$http_user_agent"';

access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log vcombined;

# TvW 20230222 expand gzip options - don't remember why, probably speed
gzip_vary on;
gzip_proxied any;
gzip_comp_level 6;
gzip_buffers 16 8k;
gzip_http_version 1.1;
gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;
EOF
sudo install -m 644 -o root -g root /dev/null /etc/nginx/snippets/nginx-server-site-tim.conf # equivalent to touch && chmod 644 && chown root:root
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /etc/nginx/snippets/nginx-server-site-tim.conf
# TvW 20230222 Default options for server blocks serving files
# include snippets/nginx-server-site-tim.conf;

# Add index.php to the list if you are using PHP
index index.php index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

location / {
	# First attempt to serve request as file, then
	# as directory, then fall back to displaying a 404.
	try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
	# This is cool because no php is touched for static content.
	# include the "?$args" part so non-default permalinks doesn't break when using query string
	#try_files                $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;
}

# deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root 
# concurs with nginx's one
location ~ /\.ht {
	deny all;
}

# Cache control
location ~* \.(?:js|css|png|jpg|jpeg|webp|gif|ico)$ {
	expires 30d;
	add_header Cache-Control "public, no-transform";
}
EOF
sudo install -m 644 -o root -g root /dev/null /etc/nginx/snippets/nginx-server-proxy-tim.conf # equivalent to touch && chmod 644 && chown root:root
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /etc/nginx/snippets/nginx-server-proxy-tim.conf
# TvW 20230222 Default options for server blocks acting as reverse proxy. Should be part of location / { }
# include snippets/nginx-server-proxy-tim.conf; 
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $server_name;
#proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Ssl on;
#proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
#proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
EOF
sudo install -m 644 -o root -g root /dev/null /etc/nginx/snippets/nginx-server-ssl-tim.conf # equivalent to touch && chmod 644 && chown root:root
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /etc/nginx/snippets/nginx-server-ssl-tim.conf
# TvW 20230222 Default options for server blocks serving ssl
# include snippets/nginx-server-ssl-tim.conf;

# Added 20190122 TvW Add HTTPS strict transport security
add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains" always;
# Added 20190121 TvW Logjam attack - see weakdh.org
ssl_dhparam /etc/ssl/private/dhparams_weakdh.org.pem;
EOF

Fix logrotate conf to keep logs for a year (instead of 14 days):

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
/var/log/nginx/*.log {
	# Rotate weekly instead of default daily
	weekly
	missingok
	# Keep 52 instead of 14 files
	rotate 52
	compress
	# Don't delay, compress after first rotation
	# delaycompress
	notifempty
	create 0640 www-data adm
	sharedscripts
	prerotate
		if [ -d /etc/logrotate.d/httpd-prerotate ]; then \
			run-parts /etc/logrotate.d/httpd-prerotate; \
		fi \
	endscript
	postrotate
		invoke-rc.d nginx rotate >/dev/null 2>&1
	endscript
}
EOF

Parse logs into visually digestable data using Goaccess:

# --persist/--keep-db-files on all files parsed
# --restore/--load-from-disk on second & subsequent files parsed
mkdir -p /tmp/goaccess-{nextcloud,photos,all}/

# At reboot, run goaccess on all files, then run on latest file every 5min
zgrep --no-filename "^nextcloud.vanwerkhoven.org" /var/log/nginx/access.log* | nice -n 19 goaccess --log-format=VCOMBINED -o /var/www/html/stats/report-nextcloud.html --keep-db-files --db-path /tmp/goaccess-nextcloud/ - 
zgrep --no-filename "^nextcloud.vanwerkhoven.org" /var/log/nginx/access.log | nice -n 19 goaccess --log-format=VCOMBINED -o /var/www/html/stats/report-nextcloud.html --load-from-disk --keep-db-files --db-path /tmp/goaccess-nextcloud/ - 
zgrep --no-filename "^photos.vanwerkhoven.org" /var/log/nginx/access.log* | nice -n 19  goaccess --log-format=VCOMBINED -o /var/www/html/stats/report-photos.html --keep-db-files --db-path /tmp/goaccess-photos/ - 
zgrep --no-filename "^photos.vanwerkhoven.org" /var/log/nginx/access.log | nice -n 19  goaccess --log-format=VCOMBINED -o /var/www/html/stats/report-photos.html --keep-db-files --load-from-disk --db-path /tmp/goaccess-photos/ - 
zgrep --no-filename -v '^nextcloud.vanwerkhoven.org\|^photos.vanwerkhoven.org' /var/log/nginx/access.log* | nice -n 19 goaccess --log-format=VCOMBINED -a -o /var/www/html/stats/report-all.html --keep-db-files --db-path /tmp/goaccess-all/ - 
zgrep --no-filename -v '^nextcloud.vanwerkhoven.org\|^photos.vanwerkhoven.org' /var/log/nginx/access.log | nice -n 19 goaccess --log-format=VCOMBINED -a -o /var/www/html/stats/report-all.html --keep-db-files --load-from-disk --db-path /tmp/goaccess-all/ - 

# Optional in case of problems, use something like below (from: https://goaccess.io/faq#configuration)
# LC_TIME="en_US.UTF-8" bash -c 'goaccess /var/log/nginx/access.log --log-format=VCOMBINED -o report.html'
# Dump & inspect existing config
nginx -T

# Migrate config
scp -r oldserver:/etc/ngnix/nginx.conf newserver:/etc/ngnix/nginx.conf # -- if you don't have tweaks here you might want to keep the vanilla configuration in case something's improved.
scp -r oldserver:/etc/ngnix/conf.d/ newserver:/etc/ngnix/conf.d/
scp -r oldserver:/etc/ngnix/modules-available/ newserver:/etc/ngnix/modules-available/
scp -r oldserver:/etc/ngnix/sites-available/ newserver:/etc/ngnix/sites-available/
scp -r oldserver:/etc/ngnix/sites-enabled/ newserver:/etc/ngnix/sites-enabled/

Migrate Certbot. Recommended package manager is snap, which has some FOSSissues being closed source. Hence we stick with apt for now, which has an older version (1.12.0), but which should be fine (I was still using 0.40.0 on my old Ubuntu server).

Alternatives:

Install certbot client, this installs both /etc/cron.d/certbot and a systemd timer which can be seen running systemctl list-timers (see this explanation).

sudo apt install certbot python3-certbot-dns-gandi

Two options:

  1. Get new certificate with maybe new account (preferred)
  2. Migrate certificates

New certificates

sudo apt install certbot python3-certbot-dns-gandi python3-certbot-nginx

sudo install -m 600 -o root -g root /dev/null /etc/letsencrypt/gandi.ini # equivalent to touch && chmod 600 && chown root:root
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /etc/letsencrypt/gandi.ini
 # live dns v5 api key
certbot_plugin_gandi:dns_api_key=APIKEY

# optional organization id, remove it if not used
certbot_plugin_gandi:dns_sharing_id=SHARINGID
EOF

# Get certificate, use old plugin syntax because debian uses an old certbot client
sudo certbot certonly -a certbot-plugin-gandi:dns --certbot-plugin-gandi:dns-credentials /etc/letsencrypt/gandi.ini -d vanwerkhoven.org -d \*.vanwerkhoven.org --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory

# IMPORTANT NOTES:
#  - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
#    /etc/letsencrypt/live/<domain>/fullchain.pem
#    Your key file has been saved at:
#    /etc/letsencrypt/live/<domain>/privkey.pem
#    Your certificate will expire on 2023-05-24. To obtain a new or
#    tweaked version of this certificate in the future, simply run
#    certbot again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your
#    certificates, run "certbot renew"


# Optional: Run nginx installer to install to servers, else install manually
sudo certbot run --nginx --certbot-plugin-gandi:dns-credentials /etc/letsencrypt/gandi.ini -d vanwerkhoven.org -d \*.vanwerkhoven.org --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory

# Optional: install automatic certificate renewal (also installed by default), either explicitly using the plugin, or implicitly via settings stored in /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/<domain>.org.conf
0 0 * * 0 certbot renew -q --authenticator dns-gandi --dns-gandi-credentials /etc/letsencrypt/gandi.ini --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory # explicitly use settings
0 0 * * 0 certbot renew -q # implictly use settings

Migrate certificates

Transfer settings/certs, something like:

ssh proteus
sudo scp -r /etc/letsencrypt/*  <target>

Didn’t work this out

Deploy Let’s Encrypt certificates

@TODO figure out how to propagate the certificate safely and automatically across services Push certificate to PVE

  1. Use SSH with unencrypted public key authentication only available to specific user
  2. Use shared disk mount / mount point, copy new certificates there, poll daily from receiving server
cp fullchain.pem /etc/pve/nodes/pve/pveproxy-ssl.pem
cp private-key.pem /etc/pve/nodes/pve/pveproxy-ssl.key

Jellyfin

sudo apt install jellyfin

GPU acceleration in lxc guest

Set up GPU acceleration (from this reddit post):

On host, identify hardware device:

apt install vainfo
ls -l /dev/dri
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root         80 Jul 21 20:08 by-path
crw-rw---- 1 root video  226,   0 Jul 21 20:08 card0
crw-rw---- 1 root render 226, 128 Jul 21 20:08 renderD128

Check what group ids video and render have:

grep "video\|render" /etc/group
video:x:44:
render:x:103:

Prepare UID mapping to guest, allow root to map group ids video and render via /etc/subgid:

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee -a /etc/subgid
root:44:1
root:103:1
EOF

Now pass hardware through to lxc, and group map video and render. Note I have to merge this with my group mapping of bulkdata user/groups.

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee -a /etc/pve/lxc/201.conf
lxc.cgroup2.devices.allow: c 226:* rwm
lxc.mount.entry: /dev/dri dev/dri none bind,optional,create=dir

lxc.idmap: g 0 100000 44
lxc.idmap: g 44 44 1
lxc.idmap: g 45 100045 60
lxc.idmap: g 105 103 1
lxc.idmap: g 106 100106 904
EOF

After this, reboot the LXC container:

# From host:
sudo pct reboot 201
# From guest:
sudo reboot

Now prepare the guest, using Debian native packages (alternatively, install from Intel apt repo)

sudo usermod -aG render,video root
sudo usermod -aG render,video jellyfin

sudo apt install --no-install-recommends libva2 libigdgmm11 mesa-va-drivers intel-media-va-driver-non-free
sudo apt install vainfo

Now vainfo should work:

sudo vainfo
error: can't connect to X server!
libva info: VA-API version 1.10.0
libva info: Trying to open /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/dri/iHD_drv_video.so
libva info: Found init function __vaDriverInit_1_10
libva info: va_openDriver() returns 0
vainfo: VA-API version: 1.10 (libva 2.10.0)
vainfo: Driver version: Intel iHD driver for Intel(R) Gen Graphics - 21.1.1 ()
vainfo: Supported profile and entrypoints
      VAProfileNone                   :	VAEntrypointVideoProc
      VAProfileNone                   :	VAEntrypointStats
      VAProfileMPEG2Simple            :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileMPEG2Simple            :	VAEntrypointEncSlice
      VAProfileMPEG2Main              :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileMPEG2Main              :	VAEntrypointEncSlice
      VAProfileH264Main               :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileH264Main               :	VAEntrypointEncSlice
      VAProfileH264Main               :	VAEntrypointFEI
      VAProfileH264Main               :	VAEntrypointEncSliceLP
      VAProfileH264High               :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileH264High               :	VAEntrypointEncSlice
      VAProfileH264High               :	VAEntrypointFEI
      VAProfileH264High               :	VAEntrypointEncSliceLP
      VAProfileVC1Simple              :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileVC1Main                :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileVC1Advanced            :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileJPEGBaseline           :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileJPEGBaseline           :	VAEntrypointEncPicture
      VAProfileH264ConstrainedBaseline:	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileH264ConstrainedBaseline:	VAEntrypointEncSlice
      VAProfileH264ConstrainedBaseline:	VAEntrypointFEI
      VAProfileH264ConstrainedBaseline:	VAEntrypointEncSliceLP
      VAProfileVP8Version0_3          :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileVP8Version0_3          :	VAEntrypointEncSlice
      VAProfileHEVCMain               :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileHEVCMain               :	VAEntrypointEncSlice
      VAProfileHEVCMain               :	VAEntrypointFEI
      VAProfileHEVCMain10             :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileHEVCMain10             :	VAEntrypointEncSlice
      VAProfileVP9Profile0            :	VAEntrypointVLD
      VAProfileVP9Profile2            :	VAEntrypointVLD

Profit!

Plex

Install as Docker image or via apt source (I chose apt install because less dependencies)

echo deb https://downloads.plex.tv/repo/deb public main | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/plexmediaserver.list
curl https://downloads.plex.tv/plex-keys/PlexSign.key | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt install plexmediaserver

Disable local network auth in advanced settings

<Preferences allowedNetworks="172.17.0.0/255.255.0.0" />

For first login, log in via localhost using ssh tunnel, e.g.

ssh -L 32400:localhost:32400 proteus
open http://localhost:32400/web

Open: set up https reverse proxy or not?

Collectd

On proxmox host (to get pure CPU stats). Need to manually add ping and snmp libs to prevent error ERROR: dlopen("/usr/lib/collectd/ping.so") failed: liboping.so.0: cannot open shared object file

sudo apt install collectd-core liboping0 libsnmp40

Set up /etc/collectd/collectd.conf:

datadir: "/var/lib/collectd/rrd/"
libdir: "/usr/lib/collectd/"

BaseDir "/var/run/collectd"
Include "/etc/collectd/conf.d"
PIDFile "/var/run/collectd.pid"
PluginDir "/usr/lib/collectd"
TypesDB "/usr/share/collectd/types.db"

Hostname "pve"
Interval 60

LoadPlugin memory
<Plugin memory>
	ValuesPercentage false
	ValuesAbsolute true
</Plugin>

LoadPlugin cpu
<Plugin cpu>
	ValuesPercentage false
	ReportByCpu false
	ReportByState false
</Plugin>

LoadPlugin cpufreq

LoadPlugin ping
<Plugin ping>
	TTL 127
	Interval 60
	AddressFamily ipv4
	Host "dataix.ru"
	Host "linx.net"
	Host "ams-ix.net"
</Plugin>

LoadPlugin network
<Plugin network>
	Server "proteus.lan.vanwerkhoven.org" "25826"
	Forward false
</Plugin>

LoadPlugin load

LoadPlugin snmp
<Plugin snmp>
  <Data "ifmib_if_octets32_table">
    Type "if_octets"
    Table true
    TypeInstanceOID "IF-MIB::ifDescr"
    # TypeInstancePrefix "if" # Optional
    Values "IF-MIB::ifInOctets" "IF-MIB::ifOutOctets"
    InvertMatch true
    Ignore "*eth1.300*"
  </Data>
  # Numerical approach, less readable once passed on to influxdb because interface name is not used
  # <Data "ifmib_if_octets32">
  #   Type "if_octets"
  #   Table false
  #   TypeInstance "iso.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.9"
  #   Values "iso.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.9" "iso.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.16.9"
  # </Data>
  <Host "vyos">
    Address "172.17.10.1"
    Version 2
    Community "public"
    Collect "ifmib_if_octets32" "ifmib_if_octets32_table"
    Interval 30
  </Host>
</Plugin>

Enable snmp on VyOS, this flow from vyos -> proxmox -> influxdb server.

set service snmp community public authorization ro
set service snmp community public network 172.17.10.0/24
set service snmp listen-address 172.17.10.1

Test this, then find what you need (I wanted traffic through my WAN interface)

See also:

snmpwalk -v 2c -c public 172.17.10.1 | less
# Get MIB on your collectd server:
# MIB search path: /home/tim/.snmp/mibs:/usr/share/snmp/mibs:/usr/share/snmp/mibs/iana:/usr/share/snmp/mibs/ietf
mkdir -p ~/.snmp/
scp -r vyos@172.17.10.1:/usr/share/snmp/mibs ~/.snmp/

mkdir -p /tmp/migrate_mibs/
scp -r vyos@172.17.10.1:/usr/share/snmp/mibs /tmp/migrate_mibs/
sudo mv /tmp/migrate_mibs/mibs/*.txt /usr/share/snmp/mibs/
sudo chown root:root /usr/share/snmp/mibs/*.txt

# IF: iso.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.9 = STRING: "eth1.300"
# RX: iso.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.9 = Counter32: 1306354856
# TX: iso.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.16.9 = Counter32: 968162683

Monitor LVM usage

LVM plugin for collectd is deprecated, and telegraf is too new for Debian. Instead we hack together a plugin in Python (or maybe shell?)

Data we need:

sudo lvs -S 'lv_attr =~ ^t'
  LV            VG  Attr       LSize   Pool Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert
  thinpool_data pve twi-aotz--  <4.95t             25.52  19.78                           
  thinpool_vms  pve twi-aotz-- 512.00g             17.65  16.10                           

tim@pve:~$ sudo lvs -S 'lv_attr =~ ^V' 
  LV            VG  Attr       LSize   Pool          Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert
  lv_backup_mba pve Vwi-aotz-- 256.00g thinpool_data        2.96                                   
  lv_backup_mbp pve Vwi-aotz--   1.00t thinpool_data        1.86                                   

Desired format (only LV name and Data% and meta%):

  thinpool_data 25.52  19.78                           
  thinpool_vms  17.65  16.10                           

Check lvmreport how to shape the right names Get list of output cols: sudo lvs -O help

sudo lvs -S 'lv_attr =~ ^t|V' -o lv_name,data_percent,metadata_percent --noheading --separator ","

Allow non-root to run this via /etc/sudoers

adduser --no-create-home --disabled-login collectd-plugin
cat << 'EOF' >>/etc/apt/sources.list
%collectd-plugin ALL= NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/lvs 
EOF

Alternatively you could set capabilities on the lvs binary itself, however this allows all users to run this – see here and here.

Create collectd Exec plugin based on the lvs output, inspired by df type/instance use. See the plain text protocol and collectd-exec(5) man page for details.

sudo install -m 755 /dev/null /usr/local/bin/collectd-lvm-usage.sh
cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /usr/local/bin/collectd-lvm-usage.sh
#!/usr/bin/env bash
# /usr/local/bin/collectd-lvm-usage
HOSTNAME="${COLLECTD_HOSTNAME:-localhost}"
INTERVAL="${COLLECTD_INTERVAL:-60}"

while true; do
	while read line; do
		# Trim whitespace https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/102008/how-do-i-trim-leading-and-trailing-whitespace-from-each-line-of-some-output
		IFS=',' linearr=($(echo "${line}" | awk '{$1=$1};1'))
		volname=${linearr[0]:-undefined}
		dataused=${linearr[1]:-99}
		echo "PUTVAL \"$HOSTNAME/lvm-${volname}/percent_bytes-used_data\" interval=$INTERVAL N:${dataused}"
		metaused=${linearr[2]}
		if [[ -n ${metaused} ]]; then
			echo "PUTVAL \"$HOSTNAME/lvm-${volname}/percent_bytes-used_meta\" interval=$INTERVAL N:${metaused}"
		fi
	done <<< "$(sudo lvs -S 'lv_attr =~ ^t|V' -o lv_name,data_percent,metadata_percent --noheading --separator ",")"
	sleep "$INTERVAL";
done
EOF

Add this to your collectd config:

LoadPlugin exec
<Plugin exec>
  Exec "collectd-plugin:collectd-plugin" "/usr/local/bin/collectd-lvm-usage.sh"
</Plugin>

Transmission

Install tranmission

sudo apt install transmission-daemon
usermod -aG bulkdata debian-transmission

Update config, ensure daemon is stopped to prevent overwriting on daemon exit

sudo systemctl stop transmission-daemon.service 
    "blockl:st-url": "http://list.iblocklist.com/?list=bt_level1&fileformat=p2p&archiveformat=gz",
    "download-dir": "/mnt/bulk/temp",
    "incomplete-dir": "/mnt/bulk/temp",
    "rpc-authentication-required": false, # optional, else could leave transmission:transmission default
    "rpc-whitelist": "127.0.0.1,172.17.20.*",

Add port 9091 to VyOS firewall

set firewall name FW_TRUST2INFRA rule 210 destination port +9091

Crashes and recovery

Unscheduled power off

On pve:

Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-modules-load[438]: Inserted module 'kvmgt'
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-modules-load[438]: Failed to find module 'exngt'
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-modules-load[438]: Failed to find module 'vfio-mdev'
[...]
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-fsck[560]: There are differences between boot sector and its backup.
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-fsck[560]: This is mostly harmless. Differences: (offset:original/backup)
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-fsck[560]:   65:01/00
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-fsck[560]:   Not automatically fixing this.
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-fsck[560]: Dirty bit is set. Fs was not properly unmounted and some data may be corrupt.
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-fsck[560]:  Automatically removing dirty bit.
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-fsck[560]: *** Filesystem was changed ***
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-fsck[560]: Writing changes.
Aug 11 13:14:37 pve systemd-fsck[560]: /dev/nvme0n1p2: 5 files, 84/130812 clusters

I want some usb devices to be accessible in my containers. We could use udev to set user/owner on the original device, however this might mess up something on the host using those devices. Instead, I use udev to create symlinks and run scripts that copies the devices and chowns them suitable for use in my containers.

First we create udev rules to create symlinks that I can programmatically find (suffix with container-link). I use the same udev rule to run a script after usb devices are online.

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /etc/udev/rules.d/65-usb-for-containers.rules
SUBSYSTEM=="tty", ENV{ID_SERIAL}=="FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR", SYMLINK+="FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-container-link", RUN+="/usr/local/bin/mk_usb-for-containers.sh"
SUBSYSTEM=="tty", ENV{ID_SERIAL}=="FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3", SYMLINK+="FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-container-link", RUN+="/usr/local/bin/mk_usb-for-containers.sh"
SUBSYSTEM=="tty", ENV{ID_SERIAL}=="dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131", SYMLINK+="dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-container-link", RUN+="/usr/local/bin/mk_usb-for-containers.sh"
EOF

In the script I copy the devices to a separate location. Copying nodes can be done with tar or can be done with cp -R.

cat << 'EOF' | sudo tee /usr/local/bin/mk_usb-for-containers.sh
#!/usr/bin/env bash
sudo rm -f /lxc/201/devices/*container-link && sudo cp -Lrp /dev/*-container-link /lxc/201/devices/ && sudo chown 100000:100020 /lxc/201/devices/*
EOF
sudo chmod 0750 /usr/local/bin/mk_usb-for-containers.sh

Then reload rules to test this is working

sudo udevadm control --reload-rules && sudo service udev restart && sudo udevadm trigger

Then create the lxc mount points based on the new links in my separate location:

lxc.cgroup2.devices.allow: c 188:* rwm
lxc.mount.entry: /lxc/201/devices/FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-container-link dev/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AC2F17KR-if00-port0 none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.mount.entry: /lxc/201/devices/FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-container-link dev/usb-FTDI_FT232R_USB_UART_AQ00K6K3-if00-port0 none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.cgroup2.devices.allow: c 166:* rwm
lxc.mount.entry: /lxc/201/devices/dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-container-link dev/usb-dresden_elektronik_ingenieurtechnik_GmbH_ConBee_II_DE2149131-if00 none bind,optional,create=file

Changelog

20231011: extended PVE root partition to 10GB because disk was full (8GB was too optimistic)

 1776  2023-10-11 21:40:36 sudo swapoff -a
 1777  2023-10-11 21:40:39 free -h
 1779  2023-10-11 21:41:32 sudo vim /etc/fstab 
 1780  2023-10-11 21:41:42 lsblk
 1787  2023-10-11 21:44:41 sudo lvreduce --size -2G /dev/mapper/pve-swap
 1788  2023-10-11 21:45:07 sudo lvextend -l +100%FREE /dev/mapper/pve-root
 1789  2023-10-11 21:45:15 lsblk -o +PARTTYPE
 1791  2023-10-11 21:47:29 sudo resize2fs /dev/mapper/pve-root
 1792  2023-10-11 21:47:38 df -h

#networking #nextcloud #nginx #security #server #smarthome #debian #vyos #proxmox #unix